Skip to main content

Full text of "Suppressed plates, wood engravings, &c., together with other curiosities germane thereto; being an account of certain matters peculiarly alluring to the collector"

See other formats
















r ^ 











i ! 





JAN 3 1968 
tfesiY Of T0*gf 

Published November 1907 












1. INTRODUCTORY . ... 1 

2. "THE MARQUIS OF STEYNE " . ... 7 








TASTE/' AND "DoN QUIXOTE" . . . .82 



8. MISCELLANEOUS .... . .149 



11. ADAPTED OR PALIMPSEST PLATES (continued) . . 226 

vii b 


Printed Separately 

The Title-page of the unwritten Death in 
London "...... 

The Third Marquis of Hertford. (From the 
engraving by W. Roll, of the painting by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence) .... 

The Fourth Marquis of Hertford. (From a 
photograph) ...... 

The Third Marquis of Hertford when Lord 
Yarmouth. (From the coloured caricature 
by Richard Dighton) .... 

The suppressed portrait of Charles Dickens . 

The "Pickwick " suppressed plate: "The 
Cricket Match." (By R. W. Buss). 

The " Pickwick " suppressed plate : " Tupman^ 
and Rachel." (By R. W. Buss) . . I 

" Tupman and Rachel." (By H. K. Browne) } 

" The Last Song/' with the suppressed border 
(By George Cruikshank) .... 


pages 20 and 21 

Facing page 24 


pages 32 and 33 

Facing page 40 



The suppressed plate from " Oliver Twist " ^ 

1. "The Fireside Scene" 

2. "The Fireside Scene/' as worked 

upon by Cruikshank 

The suppressed plate from "Sketches by 

"A Financial Survey of Cumberland or 
the Beggar's Petition." (From the only 
known uncoloured impression of the plate) 

" A Financial Survey of Cumberland or the 
Beggar's Petition." (From a coloured 
impression of the plate, with the figure of 
the valet obliterated with lamp-black) 

"Enthusiasm Delineated. (Humbly dedi-^ 
cated to his Grace the Arch Bishop of 
Canterbury by his Graces most obedi- 
ent humble Servant Wm. Hogarth " . 

"Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism. 
A Medley" . . . 

Portrait of Hogarth with his Dog Trump .' 

The plate reversed and in its last state, now 
entitled" The Bruiser" 

The Cancelled Cartoon. (By Charles Keene) 
The Cancelled " Social." (By Charles Keene)\ 

Suggestion by Joseph Crawhall for the [ 
Cancelled "Social" . J 

" The Painted Chamber." (From Antiquities 
of Westminster, 1 807) . . 

Facing page 48 


pages 64t and 65 

pages 88 and 89 

Facing page 112 





The suppressed portrait of " John Jorrocks, 
Esq., M.F.H., etc." (By Henry Alken, 
the younger) ..... 

The suppressed frontispiece for "Omar 
Khayyam." (By Edwin Edwards} 

"L'Europe alarmee pour le Fils d'un" 
Meunier. ' (The plate in itsjirst state) . 

The plate in its second state, now entitled 
"La Cour de Paix solitaire, entre les 
Roses piquantes et les Lis" 

Queen Anne presiding over the House of 
Lords. (The plate in itsjirst state) 

The plate in its second state, now representing 
George I. presiding over the House of 

"The Races of the Europeans, with their 
Keys." (The plate in its Jirst state) 

"A Skit on Britain." (The plate in its 
second state) . . . 

The Headless Horseman. (The plate with 
the head burnished out) .... 

The plate with Cromwell's head 
The plate with Charles I.'s head 

Undescribed palimpsest plate. (First state 
and second state) ..... 

Undescribed palimpsest plate. (First state 
and second state) ..... 

Facing page 160 

pages 204 and 205 

pages 236 and 237 

pages 238 and 239 

Facing page 240 

pages 242 and 243 

Facing page 244 

, 246 


Printed in the Text 


1. The Suppressed Portrait of the Marquis of Steyne . 15 

2. The Battle of Life. " Leech's Grave Mistake " . .35 

3. Rose Maylie and Oliver at Agnes's Tomb. (The sub- 

stituted plate in two states) . .51 

4. The Strange Gentleman - 55 

5. "A Trifling Mistake "Corrected , 71 

6. Philoprogenitiveness . 77 

7. "Drop it!" .... .79 

8. Enlarged detail of Hogarth's " Enthusiasm Delineated " 85 

9. The Chandelier in " Enthusiasm " 

"Credulity" . , 95 

10. The Man of Taste 105 

11. Burlington Gate as it appeared prior to 1868 . 109 

12. Don Quixote, No. 1. The Innkeeper . .115 

13. No. 2. The Funeral of Chrysostom .117 

14. No. 3. The Innkeeper's Wife and 

Daughter. . . .119 

15. }) No. 4. Don Quixote seizes the Barber's 

Basin . . . .120 

16. No. 5. Don Quixote releases the Galley 

Slaves . . . .122 

17. No. 6. The First Interview . .123 

18. No. 7. The Curate and the Barber . L . 125 

19. Danae in the Brazen Chamber 143 



20. Suppressed Illustration from The Vicar of Wakefield . 172 

21. Het beest van Babel, etc. (The plate in its first state) .218 

22. (The plate in its second state) . 219 

23. Aan der Meester Tonge-Slyper. (The plate in its Jirst 

state) . . . 229 
(As adapted by the 

Anti-Jesuits) . 229 

24. The Stature of a Great Man, or the English Colossus . 234 

25. or the Scotch Colossus . 235 

26. Aan den Experten Hollandschen Hoofd-Smith. (The 

plate in its Jirst state) ...... 245 

* 93 93 99 99 39 99 99 99 ("&' 

adapted by the Anti-Jesuits) . . . . .245 

28. An adapted Copperplate. (First state) . . . . 247 

29. (Second state) . . .247 

30. A History of the New Plot. (First state) . . . 249 

31. (Second state) . . .249 




No one who has the itch for book- collecting will 
deny that suppressed book illustrations are, what 
the forbidden fruit was to our mother Eve, 
irresistible. Whether such appetite represents the 
very proper ambition to have at his elbow the 
earliest states of beautiful or interesting books, 
of which the subsequently suppressed plate or 
wood engraving is in general a sort of guarantee, 
or the less defensible desire to possess what our 
neighbour does not, must be settled by the con- 
science of each. The fact remains that such 
rarities are peculiarly alluring to those whom 
Wotton calls "the lickerish chapmen of all such 


There are, of course, ridiculous 1 people who 
value such books as the first issue of the 
first edition of Dickens's American Notes just 
because there is a mistake in the pagination ; or 
a first edition of Disraeli's Lothair because the 
prototype of " Monsignor Catesby " is divulged by 
misprinting the name " Capel " ; or Poems by 
Robert Burns, first Edinburgh Edition, because in 
the list of subscribers " The Duke of Roxborough " 
appears as " The Duke of Boxborough" ; or 
Barker's " Breeches " Bible of 1594, because on the 
title-page of the New Testament the figures are 
transposed to 1495 ; or the first edition in French 
of Washington Irving's Sketch Book, because 
the translator, maltreating the author's name, has 
declared the book to be "traduit de 1' Anglais de 
M. Irwin Washington," and in the dedication has 
labelled Sir Walter Scott, Barronnet ; or indeed a 
book of my own, in which I described as " since 
dead" a gifted and genial gentleman who I am 
glad to think still gives the lie to my inexcusable 

1 I am quite aware that " ridiculous " is a dangerous stone to throw, 
when one lives in a glass house oneself. 


But it is not because of such errors that a 
true book-lover desires to own editiones principes 
of famous works. That ambition is legitimate 
enough, but its legitimate reason is otherwhere to 

In the case of such a book as Rogers's Italy, 
with the Turner engravings, the matter is very 
different. Here the fact that the plates on pp. 
88 and 91 are transposed is a guarantee that 
the impressions of the extraordinarily delicate en- 
gravings are of the utmost brilliancy, for the error 
was discovered before many impressions had been 
taken. The same applies, though in lesser degree, 
to such a book as Mr. Austin Dobson's Ballad of 
Beau Brocade, illustrated by Mr. Hugh Thomson, 
in the earliest edition of which certain of the 
illustrations are also misplaced. 1 There is reason 
in wishing to possess these. See what Ruskin 
himself has said of the omission of the two en- 
gravings which had appeared in the first edition 
of The Two Paths. He writes in the preface to 
the 1878 reissue : 

1 Compare also the early issues of the first edition of Ainsworth's 
Tower of London, in which the plates at pp. 28 and 45 vary from 
those in the later issues. 


" I own to a very enjoyable pride in making 
the first editions of my books valuable to their 
possessors, who found out, before other people, 
that these writings and drawings were good for 
something . . . and the two lovely engravings 
by Messrs. Cuff and Armytage will, I hope, render 
the old volume more or less classical among 
collectors/' From this we gather that "the 
Professor " was of the right kidney. 

It is hardly necessary to say that it is not my 
intention to make this book a devil's directory to 
illustrations which have been suppressed because 
of indecency, and are referred to in the cata- 
logues of second-hand booksellers, whose cupidity 
is stronger than their self-respect, as " facetiae " or 
" very curious." Indeed, this book would itself in 
that case also very properly be put on the index 
expurgatorius of every decent person. My purpose 
is to gather together, correct and amplify the float- 
ing details concerning a legitimate class of rarities, 
and to put the collector on his guard, where 
necessary, against imposition. 

By its very nature this treatise cannot be 
complete, but I have included most of the 


examples of any importance which, during many 
years of bibliomania, have come under my observa- 
tion. To these I have added certain re-engraved 
or palimpsest plates, which are germane to the 

As to these last I find amongst my papers 
a curious note from the pen of R. H. Cromek, 
the engraver, who flourished at the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

" One of these vendors," he writes (publishers 
of Family Bibles), "lately called to consult me 
professionally about an engraving he brought 
with him. It represented Mons. Buffon seated, 
contemplating various groups of animals sur- 
rounding him. He merely wished, he said, to 
be informed whether, by engaging my services to 
unclothe the naturalist, and giving him a rather 
more resolute look, the plate could not, at a trifling 
expense, be made to do duty for 'Daniel in the 
lions den'" \ 

That would be a palimpsest well worth possess- 
ing, if ever it were carried into effect. It would 
be as fascinating an object of contemplation as 
the Stothard designs for Clarissa Harlowe, 


which the same authority informs us were later 
used to illustrate the Scriptures ! But the history 
of the cliche, pure and simple, has yet to be 
written. Our concern is with higher game than 



PERHAPS the most celebrated of suppressed book 
illustrations is the wood-engraved portrait of the 
" Marquis of Steyne," drawn by Thackeray as an 
illustration to Vanity Fair, for which, if we are 
to believe the statement of a well-known book- 
seller's catalogue, " libellous proceedings (sic) were 
threatened on account of its striking likeness to a 
member of the aristocracy." With the accuracy 
of this statement I shall deal in due course. 

Before, however, proceeding to the consideration 
of the suppressed illustration itself, it will be as 
well to pause for a moment to consider what 
antecedent probability there was that Thackeray 
would pillory a well-known roue of the period in 
terms that would make the likeness undoubted and 
undeniable. And in pointing out what the great 


novelist's practice was in this respect I would 
guard myself against the charge of presuming to 
censure one who is not here to answer for himself, 
and whose nobility of character was sufficient 
guarantee of good faith and honourable intention. 
Let it always be remembered that, if Thackeray 
flagellated others, he never hesitated to taste the 
quality of his own whip first. Even in his book 
illustrations, as I have pointed out elsewhere, he 
was as unsparing of his own feelings as he was in 
his writings. And, in using himself as a whipping- 
boy for our sins, he probably believed that he was 
making himself as despicable as a Rousseau. Hence 
he came to the like treatment of other real 
personages not with unclean hands. 

Some of us may have seen, though very few of 
us can possess, a very rare pamphlet, which was 
sold for as much as 39 on one of its infrequent 
appearances in the auction -rooms, entitled Mr. 
Thackeray, Mr. Yates, and the Garrick Club. In 
it was published a never-sent reply to a letter 
written by Thackeray remonstrating with Yates 
on the contents of a "pen-and-ink" sketch published 
by the latter in No. 6 of a periodical called Town 


Talk, which resulted in Yates's expulsion from the 
Garrick Club. 

In this unsent letter he charged Thackeray with 
having unjustifiably introduced portraits both in 
his letterpress and illustrations. Mr. Stephen 
Price appeared as Captain Shindy in the Book of 
Snobs. In the same book Thackeray drew on a 
wood block what was practically a portrait of 
Wyndham Smith, a fellow-clubman. This appeared 
amongst "Sporting Snobs," Mr. Smith being a 
well-known sporting man. In Pendennis he made 
a sketch of a former member of the Garrick Club, 
Captain Granby Calcraft, under the name of 
Captain Granby Tiptoff. In the same book, 
under the transparent guise of the unforgettable 
Foker, he reproduced every characteristic, both in 
language, manner, and gesture, of Mr. Andrew 
Arcedeckne, and even went so far as to give an 
unmistakable portrait of him, to that gentleman's 
great annoyance. 

Besides the examples given by Yates, who was 
himself recognisable as George Garbage in The 
Virginians, we know, too, that in the same novel 
Theodore Hook appeared as Wagg, just as he did 


as Stanislaus Hoax in Disraeli's Vivian Grey, and 
that Alfred Bunn was the prototype of Mr. 
Dolphin. Archdeacon Allen was the original of 
Dobbin, Lady Langford of Lady Kevv ; and last, 
but not least, we have lately learned from Mrs. 
Ritchie that the inimitable Becky had undoubtedly 
her incarnation. 

So we see that the antecedent improbability is 
as the snakes in Iceland ; for the above examples, 
which no doubt could be largely added to, prove 
that Thackeray did not hesitate to draw direct 
from the model when it suited his purpose. 

So far so good. Let us now proceed to inquire 
into the identity of the "Marquis of Steyne." 

That his protoype was a Marquis of Hertford is 
axiomatic with all those who have ever taken any 
interest in the subject ; but when we come to 
inquire which marquis we find that opinions are 
astonishingly at variance. It would seem almost 
as though any Marquis of Hertford would serve, 
whereas in point of fact the portrait would be the 
grossest libel upon each of that noble line save 
one ; and so incidentally we shall, by making the 
matter clear, rescue from calumny an honourable 


race, which has hitherto through heedlessness been 
tarred with the same brush as its least honourable 

To show that this is not a reckless charge of 
inaccuracy, I quote from four letters in my 
possession written by four persons most likely to 
have special knowledge upon the subject. 

The first, which is from a well-known printseller, 
informs me " that the Marquis of Steyne in Vanity 
Fair was Francis, second Marquis of Hertford, 
who died in 1822." 

The second, which is from one more intimately 
acquainted with the family than any other living 
person, says, " Unquestionably Francis, third 
Marquis of Hertford, the intimate friend of 
George IV., was the prototype of the Marquis of 
Steyne in Thackeray's Vanity Fair" 

The third letter, which is from a well-known 
London editor, in general the best-informed man I 
have ever met, says, " It was the fourth Lord, who 
died in 1870." 

The last of the four letters supports this view and 
says : " It was the fourth, not the third, Marquis 
of Hertford who was supposed to be the prototype 


of Thackeray's Marquis of Steyne. . . . He was 
Richard Seymour Conway, who was born in 1800 
and died in 1870." l 

Now, considering that these are the only 
opinions for which I have asked, and that they 
are so curiously divergent, it will, I think, be clear 
that it is time an authoritative declaration were 
forthcoming, based upon independent inquiries. 

It may as well, then, be stated once for all that 
no one who has taken the trouble to investigate 
the lives of the three marquises above mentioned 
can hesitate for a moment in identifying the 
" Marquis of Steyne " with the third Marquis of 
Hertford. To those who are curious to know 
very full particulars about these noblemen I 
would recommend the perusal of an interesting 
article entitled "Two Marquises" in Lippincotfs 
Magazine for February 1874. Nor should they 
fail to read Disraeli's Coningsby, and compare 
" Lord Monmouth " and his creature " Rigby," 
whose prototypes were the same Marquis of 
Hertford and his creature Croker, with the 

1 As I write, a great daily newspaper informs the world that it was 
tine first Marquis. 


4 * Marquis of Steyne" and his managing man 
" Wenham." 

And, whilst we are identifying the third 
Marquis in Coningsby and Vanity Fair, reference 
may be made to another most unflattering 
portrait of that notorious nobleman in a book 
published anonymously in 1844, which was 
immediately suppressed, but is now not infrequently 
to be found in second-hand book catalogues. The 
book was (I believe) written by John Mills, and 
had ten clever etched plates by George Standfast 
(probably a nom de plume). Copies in the parts as 
published are excessively rare. The title of the 
book is UHorsay ; or the Follies of the Day, by a 
Man of Fashion. 1 It dealt with the escapades, 
vices, and adventures of well-known men of the day 
under the following transparent pseudonyms : 
Count d'Horsay, the Marquis of Hereford, the 
Earl of Chesterlane, Mr. Pelham, General Reel, 
Lord George Bentick, Mr. George Robbins, 
auctioneer, the Earl of Raspberry Hill, Benjamin 
D i, Lord Hunting- Castle, and others. The 

1 This scurrilous and poorly written book has lately been thought 
worthy of resurrection and republication. 


account of the "closing scene in the life of the 
greatest debauchee the world has ever seen, the 
Marquis of Hereford," is too horrible to repeat. 

So much for the identity of the " Marquis of 
Steyne" as described in Thackeray's letterpress, 
which need not be dwelt upon here at greater 
length, seeing that the immediate object of this 
chapter is to deal with the accompanying engraving 
and its history. And in proceeding to this 
examination it should not be forgotten, in fairness 
to the novelist, that Thackeray has explained that 
his characters were made up of little bits of various 
persons. This is no doubt true enough. At the 
same time, we cannot but be aware that, although 
the details may have been gathered, the outline has 
been drawn direct from the life. 

Vanity Fair was issued originally in monthly 
parts. Its first title was Vanity Fair: Pen and 
Pencil Sketches of English Society. Its first 
number was dated "January 1847," and had 
"illustrations on steel and wood by the Author/ 
On p. 336 of the earliest issue of this first edition 
appeared the wood engraving of the Marquis of 
Steyne, wanting which a first edition is, to the 


bibliomaniac, Halrdet with Hamlet left out. In 
the later issues, the engraving (which I here 
reproduce) was omitted, as also was the "rustic 


type " in which the title appeared on the first page. 1 
The publishers were Messrs. Bradbury and Evans, 

1 To the rabid bibliophile I here present another variation, which 
has hitherto escaped the bookseller. In the first edition, on p. 453, will 
be found the misprint " Mr." (for " Sir ") Pitt and Lady Jane Crawley. 


as was natural, Thackeray being at this time on 
the staff of Punch. In later editions of the novel, 
published by Messrs. Smith, Elder and Co., the 
engraving reappears viz. on p. 22 of vol. ii. in the 
standard edition, and on p. 158, vol. ii., of the 
twenty-six-volume edition. 1 

What was the reason for its sudden removal 
immediately after publication ? As I have said 
above, it is commonly stated to have been in 
consequence of a threatened action for libel, of 
course on account of the undoubted likeness of the 
" Marquis of Steyne " to the third Marquis of 
Hertford. But how does this tally with facts? 
Lord Hertford had died in 1842, whilst the first 
number of Vanity Fair did not appear until 1847. 
Now every lawyer knows that you cannot libel 
a dead man. This was made clear some few 
years ago (I think) in the case of the Duke 
of Vallombrosa against a well-known English 
journalist. Therefore it is quite certain that, 
although legal proceedings might have been 
threatened, they would certainly have collapsed. 

1 It does not appear amongst the illustrations to the biographical 
edition, which are restricted to the full-page plates. 


Further than that, those who knew the fourth 
Marquis are aware that he was the last man in the 
world to embark upon a lawsuit or court publicity 
in any way. And if any doubt upon the matter 
should still remain, I am able to state positively 
that no trace is to be discovered amongst the 
Hertford family papers of any action threatened or 
brought against Thackeray on any grounds what- 
soever. I think, then, that we may dismiss once 
for all this aspect of the case. 

At the same time it is not impossible that some 
hint may have reached the novelist's ears that the 
illustration gave pain to persons then living, and 
that he promptly had it removed. But against 
this view there is a very strong presumption. If 
we turn the leaves of our original issue of Vanity 
Fair, we shall, on p. 421, find another wood 
engraving, and opposite p. 458 a full-page steel 
engraving, " The Triumph of Clytemnestra," both 
containing portraits of "The Marquis of Steyne." 
Now, considering that that nobleman's august 
features are as recognisable in these as in the 
suppressed engraving, it seems unreasonable to 
suppose that the one would have been removed 


without the others, in consequence of family repre- 

Possibly the real truth of the matter is a very 
much simpler one. It may have been either that 
Thackeray was himself disgusted with the brutal 
frankness of the picture when he saw it printed, 
and insisted on its removal, or that the block met 
with some accident. Indeed, I am inclined to 
think, judging from my memory of the subject, 
that the idea of an action for libel is one that has 
only found expression in more modern book- 
sellers' catalogues. If I am not mistaken, the 
older booksellers used to speak of the engraving 
not as " suppressed," but as " extremely rare," and 
that it was supposed to have disappeared from 
later issues because it was broken before many 
impressions were taken. Of course, a threatened 
action for libel, on account of its striking likeness 
to a member of the aristocracy, added piquancy 
to the affair, and so redounded to the benefit 
of the vendor of the earliest issue of a first 
edition ; and the identification of Lord Steyne's 
prototype, in the letterpress, gave colour to the 
idea. Once set going, we may be certain that 


the legend would not be allowed to lapse for lack 
of advertisement. To adapt what Dr. Johnson said 
of the " Countess," " Sir," said he to Boswell, " in the 
case of a (marquis) the imagination is more excited." 
The accompanying portraits of the third and 
fourth Marquises of Hertford give the reader an 
opportunity of forming his own opinion in the 
matter of identity. That of the third Marquis 
is from the engraving by William Holl of the 
painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence, and certainly 
seems to suggest, in the prime of life, the features 
and expression which Thackeray has portrayed in 
old age. The bald head, and the arrangement of 
the whiskers which are allowed to approach the 
corners of the mouth are incontestable points of 
resemblance ; and if the old voluptuary is some- 
what more battered than Lawrence's rather spruce 
model, we must remember that his portrait was 
painted by the courtly President of the Royal 
Academy many years before the period of life 
at which he is introduced to us by the novelist. 
Certainly he is not an attractive object ; and I 
was amused to receive a letter from a member 
of the family to whom I first showed the wood 


engraving in which these words occur : " I find we 
have no portrait whatever of the Lord Hertford in 
question, and am not surprised at it if he at all 
resembled that of the Marquis in Vanity Fair \ " * 

As regards the fourth Marquis, it is a curious 
fact that, notwithstanding his vast wealth, and his 
tastes as an artist and connoisseur, no painted 
or engraved portrait of him is known. The 
photograph here reproduced is the only counter- 
feit presentment extant, and is enough, if further 
evidence were needed, to dispose for ever of the 
idea that he was the prototype of the Marquis of 
Steyne. It is hardly necessary to remind the 
reader that it is to him, through Sir Richard and 
Lady Wallace, that the nation owes a debt of 
gratitude for the splendid collection now housed 
in perpetuity in Hertford House. 2 

1 This is the description of the Marquis in Coningsby : " Lord 
Monmouth was in height above the middle size, but somewhat portly 
and corpulent ; his countenance was strongly marked : sagacity on the 
brow, sensuality in the mouth and jaw ; his head was bald, but there 
were remains of the rich brown hair on which he once prided himself. 
His large, deep blue eye, madid, and yet piercing, showed that the 
secretions of his brain were apportioned half to voluptuousness, half 
to common sense." This might well pass as a description of the 
Thackeray drawing. 

2 Just before Lady Wallace's death, an examination of the Hertford 
House library failed to discover a first edition of Vanity Fair, in which 


(From the engraving by W. Holl, of the painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence.) 


(From a photograph.) 


It will be noticed that in this photograph 
Lord Hertford wears his Star of the Order of the 
Garter, to obtain which he made the " tremendous 
sacrifice " of which an amusing account is given in 
the Lippincott article mentioned above. Of him 
the Speaker wrote at the time of his death : 

Living in Paris a quiet and rather solitary life in habits 
more a Frenchman than an Englishman ; in tastes an artist 
and a connoisseur ; in purse and opportunity unlimited by 
any niggard need of self-control the fourth Marquis of 
Hertford busied himself in gathering together from the 
treasure-houses of Europe innumerable precious specimens 
of the painter's, the goldsmith"^, and the cabinetmaker's art. 
Year after year, with tranquil perseverance, he heaped up 
on every side of him all the beautiful objects on which he 
could lay hands pictures, miniatures, furniture, enamels, 
china and plate, bronzes, and coats of armour until his 
storehouses were full to overflowing of treasures which, 
except for the pleasure of procuring them, he could hardly 
ever have enjoyed. In this congenial task he was assisted 
by a young Englishman, the secret of whose connection with 
the Hertford family, if any such there was, the public has 
never penetrated yet. To this young Englishman, who was 
well known and liked in Parisian society in the tawdry 
splendour of the Second Empire, and whose active generosity 

I fancied some note might possibly have been found. This was probably 
due to the fact that a large number of the Hertford books were destroyed 
in the Pantechnicon fire. 


won him wide esteem in that desolated capital amid the 
terrible events of the winter of 1870-71, Lord Hertford 
bequeathed the wonderful possessions which he had accumu- 
lated in a lifetime of discriminating labour. When the 
Franco-German War and the Commune were over, Richard 
Wallace brought his spoils safely home, and exhibited them 
for a time at the Bethnal Green Museum while he built the 
great galleries to hold them in Manchester Square. But 
even here they were not destined to bring much happiness 
to their possessor. After a short time Sir Richard Wallace 
was left heirless like Lord Hertford by a cruel stroke of 
fate ; and now, by his widov/s gift, the splendid inheritance, 
which has passed so quickly from the keeping of the hands 
that laid it up, goes to enrich a public which will not be 
ungrateful for the donor's rare munificence, or unmindful of 
the sad and curious story it recalls. 1 

To return again to the suppressed wood engrav- 
ing itself, it is curious to notice that old "Lady 
Kew " of The Newcomes was sister to Lord 
Steyne. Now the name "Kew" at once suggests 

1 A footnote on p. 229, vol. iv. of G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage 
says : " [The fourth Marquis] is said never to have been in England. 
He left his Irish estates (worth 50,000 a year) and most of his 
personalty (which included the well-known Hertford collection of 
pictures) to Sir Richard Wallace, Bart, (so cr. 1866), who is supposed 
to have been an illegit. son, either of himself (when aged 18), or of his 
father, or even (not improbably) of his mother ; which Richard (b. in 
London, 26th July 1818) d. s.p. at Paris, 20th July 1890, in his 72nd 
year, and was bur. in the family vault at Pere-la-Chaise. Sir Richard's 
' art treasures ' (derived as above stated) were valued at his death in 
1890 at above two millions." 


to those conversant with the early doings of the 
century the nickname of the notorious Duke of 
Queensberry, known to all and sundry as " Old Q," 
and sets us considering why the name should 
suggest itself to Thackeray in connection with 
Lord Hertford. And what do we find ? 

When the third Marquis was but twenty-one, 
he married a young lady named Marie FagnianL 
She was believed to be the daughter of the Duke 
of Queensberry and an opera dancer ,of that name. 
Nothing would be more natural, therefore, than 
that Thackeray, having saturated himself with the 
surroundings of the prototypes of his characters, 
should, probably half unconsciously, have seized 
upon a capital name suggested to him in the 
course of preparing for his novel, and so adapted 
it to his requirements. This suggestion I only 
make for what it is worth. It may, of course, 
merely be that a search through the suburban 
directory suggested the name, as was no doubt the 
case in apportioning to her ladyship's husband his 
second title of Lord Walham. At any rate, the 
coincidence seems worth recording. 

In conclusion, there can be no possible doubt 


that so far as Thackeray's letterpress is concerned, 
the prototype of the Marquis of Steyne (Lord of 
the Powder Closet, etc. etc.) was Francis Charles 
Seymour Conway (third Marquis of Hertford) of 
his branch ; Earl of Hertford and Yarmouth, 
Viscount Beauchamp, Baron Conway, and Baron 
of Ragley in England ; and Baron Conway and 
Kilultagh in the peerage of Ireland ; and as 
regards the suppressed wood engraving, there will, 
I think, be little question that Thackeray the 
artist dotted his i's by an intentional representation 
of the noble lord's not altogether attractive 

It is, however, only fair to state that Lord 
Hertford was probably by no means the un- 
mitigated scoundrel that those familiar with the 
" Marquis of Steyne " might be led to suppose. 
That he participated in all the amusements and 
most of the follies of a notorious society there can 
be little doubt. At the same time, we have it on 
record (in the somewhat pompous diction of the 
period) that he was extensively read in ancient and 
modern literature, that his judgment was remark- 
able for its solidity and sagacity, and that his 



(From the coloured caricature by Richard Dighton.) 


conversation was enlivened by much of that 
refined and quaint pleasantry which distinguished 
his near relative, Horace Walpole. He was a 
distinguished patron of all the arts ; and those who 
were more intimately acquainted with his private 
life gave him the still higher praise of being a 
warm, generous, and unalterable friend. "It is 
but justice to add," to quote the final words of the 
notice referred to, "that the writer has accident- 
ally become acquainted with instances of his Lord- 
ship's benevolence, the liberality of which was 
equalled only by the delicacy with which it was 
conferred, and the scrupulous care with which he 
endeavoured to conceal it." 

The caricature portrait of the third Marquis 
here reproduced was etched, as will be seen, by 
Richard Dighton in 1818, when this Marquis's 
father was alive, and he was only the Earl of 
Yarmouth. The watermark on the paper is 1826, 
which explains the inscription " Marquis of Hert- 
ford," evidently a later addition an ex post facto 
puzzle which proved insoluble until it occurred to 
me to hold the portrait up to the light. 



HAVING dealt in the last chapter with the 
suppression of the well-known Thackeray wood- 
cut of the " Marquis of Steyne," we naturally turn 
next in order to the other great Victorian novelist, 
Charles Dickens. Much, of course, has been 
written about the Buss plates in Pickwick, and 
much about the "Fireside Scene" in Oliver 
Twist. All readers of Forster's Life of Charles 
Dickens know something of the wood engraving 
in The Battle of Life which ought to have been, 
but never was, cancelled ; and some know what to 
look for in the vignette title of Martin Chuzzlewit. 
It is, however, time that the scattered details 
should be grouped, that reproductions of the plates 
themselves should make reference easy to those 



who would identify their possessions, and that the 
additional information which is in some cases 
scattered about in various impermanent writings 
of my own and others should be focussed for the 
greater convenience of the collector. 

In the first place, I shall present to the reader a 
suppressed portrait of the great novelist, which has, 
I believe, never since been reproduced. It was 
published about the year 1837 by Churton, but 
as to the name of the artist by whom it was etched 
there is a mystery which yet awaits solution. The 
plate is, as will be noticed, signed with the familiar 
pen-name "Phiz," but was almost immediately 
repudiated by the chartered bearer of that title, 
H. K. Browne. It was promptly withdrawn from 
publication, and is now, as a necessary con- 
sequence, much sought after by the collector. 1 
Of it the author of Charles Dickens, the Story 
of his Life, writes : 

A very remarkable [portrait] was etched about 1837 
with the name " Phiz " at the foot. It represents Dickens 

1 Since writing this^ I have experienced a piece of scurvy luck. 
Entering a shop in the outskirts of Birmingham, I saw an impression 
of the etching lying on a table. I inquired its price and was met by the 
answer that it had just been sold to a lady for eighteenpence ! 


seated on a chair and holding a portfolio. In the back- 
ground a Punch-and-Judy performance is going on. The 
face has none of that delicacy and softness about it which 
are observable in the Maclise portrait. It looks, however, 
more like the real young face of the older man, as revealed 
in the photograph now publishing [i.e. just after Dickens's 
death]. This portrait is very rare, and it is understood 
that it was withdrawn from publication soon after it 
appeared. Mr. Hablot K. Browne, the genuine "Phiz," 
denies all knowledge of it. 

The Hotten memoir thus whets the appetites 
of its readers, but does not offer to satisfy them by 
a reproduction. This obvious duty I therefore 
here take the opportunity of discharging, and 
would advise the book-hunter to make a mental 
note of the etching in that pix of the brain where 
is secreted the reagent which separates the rare 
gold of the bookseller's threepenny box from its 
too ordinary dross. The reproduction here given 
is about the size of the original etching. 

So much for the suppressed portrait. Now 
let us take up our first edition of Pickwick, and 
say what has to be said about the much-discussed 
Buss plates and their substitutes. 

Pickwick, as we all know, was first published 
in parts, and only one number had appeared when 



Robert Seymour, its illustrator, died by his own 
hand. Messrs. Chapman and Hall, the publishers, 
were at their wits' end to get the new number 
illustrated in time for publication. Jackson, the 
well-known wood-engraver, who was at the time 
working for them, proposed for the task R. W. 
Buss, a "gentleman already well known to the 
public as a very humorous and talented artist." 
The publishers gladly adopted the suggestion, and 
the appointment was made. 

All this we find very fully set out in Mr. Percy 
Fitzgerald's History of Pickwick, to which I 
would refer the reader who is anxious to acquaint 
himself with details of the transaction. The Buss 
etchings, which we here reproduce, had for their 
subjects "The Cricket Match" and "Tupman and 
Rachel," and are to be found respectively opposite 
pp. 69 and 74 of the earliest issues of the first 
edition of the immortal romance. They were, in 
the words of the artist himself, " abominably bad," 
and he was immediately superseded as illustrator 
by H. K. Browne, who was destined to be insepar- 
ably connected with the novelist's work for so long 
a period. 


This episode has been so often dwelt upon, and 
so exhaustively dealt with, that I shall not do 
much more than point out how those who have 
written on the subject have altogether missed 
what is perhaps the most important link in the 
whole chain of circumstances. So put to it, as I 
have said, were the publishers to get the new 
number out in time lest an expectant public should 
be disappointed, that they were forced to fix upon 
Seymour's substitute without consulting Dickens. 
This was really the whole crux of the situation. 
The author only recognised the failure of the 
plates. He knew nothing of the difficulties under 
which Buss had laboured, and so naturally made 
no allowances, and knew of no reason why sub- 
sequent ones should be better. The plates un- 
questionably were poor, but we find from Mr. 
Buss's own private MS., to which, by his son's 
kindness, I have had access, that this was not by 
any means mainly the fault of the artist. He had 
previously had no experience in etching, and only 
undertook the work after much pressure, to 
accommodate the publishers. To quote from his 
own account : 

(By R. W. Buss.) 


At Seymour's death, Hall engaged me to illustrate 
Charles Dickens's Pickwick. I commenced practice, and 
worked hard, I may say day and night, for at least a month 
on etching, and I furnished the illustrations for Pickwick. 
Without any reason assigned, Hall broke his engagement 
with me, in a manner at once unjust and unhandsome. 

As a matter of fact, the plates, as they 
appeared, were* not etched by Buss at all, but by 
a professional etcher after his designs. And it is 
curious to note that each of the plates is, notwith- 
standing, inscribed, "Drawn & Etch'd by R. W. 

The artist's bitterness against his employers was 
not unnatural. At the same time, we must re- 
member that the fact that they had on the spur 
of the moment to decide upon an artist, without 
consulting Dickens, puts the matter in a very 
different light. The fortunes of the venture were 
at stake. The author, at all hazards, must be 
humoured. His will was paramount, and when 
he insisted upon Buss's supersession by H. K. 
Browne, there was practically an end of the 
matter. Happily Buss's labour was not all 
lost, and it was with much pleasure that I seized 
the opportunity offered me by the editor of the 


Magazine of Art in June 1902, to point out in 
that publication how perverse has been the fate 
which has made the name of an artist of no mean 
order more familiar by his few failures than by his 
many successes. It is not generally known that 
there are in existence two etched plates by Buss 
showing that he contemplated a series of extra 
illustrations to Pickwick. The one is a title-page 
with Mr. Pickwick being crowned ; the other is 
rather a poor rendering of " The Break-down." 

But to return to the plates themselves : only 
about seven hundred copies were published when 
plates by Browne were substituted for them. 
" The Cricket Match " was wholly suppressed, and 
the subject of " Tupman and Rachel " was etched 
over again, considerably altered, but evidently 
founded upon the Buss plate. The latter is here 
reproduced for the purpose of comparison. 

That every Dickens collector desires to possess 
one of the seven hundred copies of the first issue 
of the first edition which contain the Buss plates, 
is a matter of course, and enough has been said to 
make clear the reason of such desire. Should 
any of my readers fail to sympathise, he must take 

(By R. W. Buss.) 

(By H. K. Browne.) 


it as an incontrovertible sign that he is immune from 
that most delightful of all diseases, bibliomania. 

It need only be added that, in the beautiful 
"Victorian Edition" of the novel, published in two 
volumes by Messrs. Chapman and Hall in 1887, 
facsimiles may be seen of the original drawings 
made for the suppressed plates, as well as two 
unpublished drawings prepared by Mr. Buss, but 
not used. The subjects of these are "Mr. 
Pickwick at the Review," and " Mr. Wardle and 
his Friends under the Influence of the Salmon.'* 
The first is an excellent drawing, and goes far to 
prove that, had Buss been given time, he would 
have no more failed as illustrator of Pickwick 
than he did as illustrator of various other most 
successful publications. The same edition also 
contains facsimiles of an unused drawing by 
"Phiz," "Mr. Winkle's First Shot," and of a 
water-colour drawing of " Tom Smart and the 
Chair," sent in to the publishers by John Leech 
as a specimen of his work. From which it will 
be seen that the "Victorian Edition," limited to 
two thousand copies, is also one which every 
Dickens lover ought, if possible, to possess. 


The originals of the Buss drawings were in the 
possession of the artist's daughter, Miss Frances 
Mary Buss, the well-known founder of the North 
London Collegiate and Camden Schools, until her 
death a few years ago. They were then sold, and 
I have been unable to discover into whose hands 
they have passed. 

So much for the Pickwick suppressed plates, 
which, if strict chronology were to be observed, 
should naturally be followed by an account of the 
" Rose Maylie and Oliver " plates in Oliver Twist. 
These, however, we shall hold over for another 
chapter, as they will have to be considered at some 
length. Meanwhile, we will deal shortly with the 
curious wood engraving in The Battle of Life, 
and with the etching of " The Last Song " in 
The Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi. The former 
is so far germane to our subject that it should 
have been suppressed, but, out of consideration 
for the artist, was not. 

Every Dickens collector desires to possess the 
complete set of the " Christmas Books " in their 
dainty red cloth bindings, dated from 1843 to 
1848. A really desirable set includes, of course, 


" Leech's grave mistake." 


the Christmas Carol, 1 with coloured plates by 
Leech, with the green end-papers and " stave 1 " ; 
The Chimes, with the publishers' names within 
the engraved part of the title-page ; and The 
Battle of Life, with the publishers' names on both 
titles. But it is only the last of these that is 
entitled to mention in a treatise on cancelled 
illustrations, and that, as I have said, not because 
it was suppressed, but because it should have been. 
By those who are familiar with the story it 
will be remembered that an early part of the plot 
leads one to suppose that Marion Jeddler had 
eloped with Michael Warden, when, as a matter 
of fact, she had merely escaped to her aunt. 
Leech, who was engaged as illustrator, was 
immensely busy, and only read so much of the 
story as seemed necessary for his purpose. As a 
result he was deceived, as Dickens intended his 
readers should be, and designed the double illustra- 
tion here reproduced, in which the festivities to 
welcome the bridegroom at the top of the page 

1 It may be mentioned that there are two or three copies of the 
Christmas Carol known with the title-page and half-title printed in 
green and red, instead of in red and blue. Much store is laid by this 
variation amongst really moonstruck collectors. 


contrast with the flight of the bride in company 
with Michael Warden represented below. Thus 
was Dickens curiously "hoist with his own 
petard." And the curious thing is that, notwith- 
standing the publicity given to the mistake in 
Forster's Life of Dickens, this tragic woodcut, 
which wrongs poor Marion's innocence and makes 
a hash of the whole story, is reproduced in the 
reprints up to this very day. The poor girl's 
tragic figure remains, and seems likely to continue 
to do so, a victim to the stereotype. 

This episode is generally referred to as " Leech's 
grave mistake," and grave undoubtedly it was ; 
but the matter has its bright side, which redounds 
to the credit of the great novelist. I take the 
liberty of quoting from what has always seemed 
to me a very noble letter when we remember that 
Dickens was of all men most sensitive to any 
shortcomings in the work of his collaborators. 
He writes to Forster : 

When I first saw it it was with a horror and agony not 
to be expressed. Of course I need not tell you, my dear 
fellow, Warden has no business in the elopement scene. He 
was never there. In the first hot sweat of this surprise and 
novelty I was going to implore the printing of that sheet to 


be stopped, and the figure taken out of the block. But 
when I thought of the pain that this might give to our kind- 
hearted Leech, and that what is such a monstrous enormity 
to me, as never having entered my brain, may not so present 
itself to others, I became more composed, though the fact is 
wonderful to me. 

Of course, had it been in these days of hurried 
publication, Dickens would hardly have given the 
matter a second thought. The average illustrator 
of to-day is curiously superior to the requirements 
of his author. He either does not read the episodes 
that he is called upon to illustrate, or, if he reads 
them, he does not grasp their meaning, or, if he 
grasps their meaning, the meaning does not meet 
with his approval. At any rate, he constantly 
makes a hash of the whole thing. Take for 
example Penelopes English Experiences, by Miss 
Kate Wiggin, now lying before me. Look at the 
illustration, opposite p. 58, of Lady de Wolfe's 
butler, who struck terror into Penelope's soul 
because lie did not wear a livery, and try, if you 
can, to recognise him in the shoulder-knotted, 
stripe-waistcoated, plush-breeched, silk-stockinged 
menial with an " unapproachable haughtiness of 
demeanour," which the illustrator has portrayed. 


Nor is this one of a few exceptional cases : their 
number might be multiplied ad infinitum. 

But to return to The Battle of Life. Curiously 
enough, there is another little episode connected 
with this book, never, I believe, noticed before, 
which accentuates our impression of the generosity 
of Dickens's character. 

Three years after its publication a somewhat 
scurrilous little volume (now excessively rare), 
bearing the allusive title The Battle of London 
Life; or Boz and his Secretary, issued from the 
press. It was illustrated by six lithographs signed 
with the name of George Augustus Sala. It was 
a poor enough performance, but attracted attention 
by its ad captandum title, and the portrait of "Boz 
in his Study." It is an imaginary and far from 
complimentary account of Dickens's employment 
of a secretary, whose occupation it is to show him 
round the haunts of vice in London, by way of 
providing "local colour " for the novels. Eventually 
the secretary turns out to be a detective, who has 
been told off by the Government to discover 
the nature of the novelist's intimacy with the 
revolutionist, Mazzini. It is a vulgar little 


brochure, and, for all its futility, must have been 
very distasteful to the idol of the day. It was 
therefore the more magnanimous of Dickens to 
ignore the part which Sala had in it, and to speak 
so generously of him as we find him doing in the 
Life, besides employing him and pushing him, 
as he did largely later on, in his periodicals. A 
smaller man would not have allowed himself to 
forget such youthful indiscretions, for "memory 
always obeys the commands of the heart." 

Judged as a work of art, The Battle of Life is 
perhaps the least successful of Dickens's "Christmas 
Books." Edward FitzGerald's opinion of it was 
shown in an autograph letter which came into the 
market only the other day. "What a wretched 
affair is The Battle of Life \ " he writes ; " it scarce 
even has the few good touches that generally 
redeem Dickens." 

Whilst we are on the subject of an illustration 
which should have been suppressed but was not, 
it should be pointed out that this was not the 
only occasion upon which Leech misunderstood 
Dickens's purport. This we learn from Mr. 
F. G. Kitton's monumental work, Dickens and 


(By George Cruikshank.) 


his Illustrators. Here he tells us that in another 
Christmas book, The Chimes, Leech delineated, 
in place of Richard as described in the text, an 
extremely ragged and dissipated-looking character, 
with a battered hat upon his head. When the 
novelist saw it the drawing had already been 
engraved, but the woodcut was promptly sup- 
pressed ; there still exists, however, an impression 
of the cancelled engraving, which is bound up with 
what is evidently a unique copy of The Chimes 
(now the property of Mr. J. P. Dexter), where 
blank spaces are left for some of the woodcuts. 
This particular copy is probably the publishers' 
" make-up," which had accidentally left their hands. 
Let us now consider for a moment a very 
remarkable etching which was, so far only as 
regards an important portion of it, cancelled in 
all but the very first issue of The Memoirs of 
Joseph Grimaldi. These were published in two 
volumes in 1838. Besides writing the preface, 
Dickens was only responsible for the editing of 
Mr. Egerton Wilks's manuscript, which had been 
prepared from autobiographical notes. A good 
deal of fault was found with the work, particularly 


on the ground that Dickens himself could never 
have seen Grimaldi. To this he very pertinently 
replied, "I don't believe that Lord Braybrooke 
had more than the very slightest acquaintance 
with Mr. Pepys, whose memoirs he edited two 
centuries after he died ! " l 

The volumes are now most valued for the 
twelve etchings by George Cruikshank ; but the 
important thing from the bibliolater's point of 
view is to possess the earliest issue with "The Last 
Song" surrounded by a grotesque border. This 
border, which is here produced, was removed 
from the plate after the first issue of the first 
edition. I have just had offered to me a copy 
of this edition containing " The Last Song " in the 
two states, i.e. with and without the border, for 
the modest sum of eight guineas ! 

1 My attention was lately called to a copy of the memoirs in which 
the former owner had pasted the following amusingly irrelevant note : 
"At the Beckford sale a copy of the famous Grimm the Grimm 
with the illustrations printed in bronze-coloured ink fetched 64." 
I have a very shrewd suspicion that the annotator had an unmethodical 
brain, and believed Grimm to be short for Grimaldi ! Requiescat in 




IN dealing with the episode of the suppressed plate 
in Oliver Twist we must be careful to bear in mind 
the fact that between the publication of Pickwick 
and the later novel there was an essential difference. 
The former was first published in self-contained 
parts, whereas the latter was published serially in 
Bentleys Miscellany. Hence, the first editions of 
Pickwick in book form are to be met with bound 
from the parts, whereas the first editions in book- 
form of Oliver Twist are only to be found as 
issued by the publishers complete in three volumes. 
And unless we grasp this distinction at the outset 
we shall find it impossible to understand the 
apparently erratic appearance and disappearance 



of the suppressed plate of "Rose Maylie and 
Oliver : the Fireside Scene " and its substitute. 

The first instalment of the novel was published 
in the second number of Bentleys Miscellany, 
February 1837, and it continued to run for nearly 
two years and a quarter. From this it will be 
seen that the last instalment of the novel was not 
published until three months of the year 1839 had 

In the meantime, however, the novel and the 
illustrations had been completed, and the whole 
story was printed in book form and published in 
three volumes in the second year of its serial issue, 
the exact date being November 9, 1838. 

As a consequence we shall find the following 
curious result namely, that the owners of the 
very earliest issue of Oliver Twist find themselves 
not in the happy possession of the suppressed 
plate, as would be naturally expected, but in the 
melancholy possession of its exceedingly ugly 

This, to the uninitiated, would prove as great 
a puzzle as to Macaulay's New Zealander would 
appear the fact that in Truro Cathedral the older 


structure is of a later style than the new. But 
this is comparing small things with great. For we 
are fain to confess that, unlike the law, de minimis 
curat helluo librorum. 

Thus, then, we have to face this apparent 
anomaly, that, to possess a copy of Oliver Twist 
with brightest impressions of the etchings through- 
out, we are under the necessity of combining the 
early plates from Bentleys Miscellany with the 
later plates from the first edition published in 
volume form. This not uninteresting fact I may, 
I believe, claim to be the first to point out, and 
it goes far to explain a very misleading note on 
p. 151 of Reid's monumental Catalogue of George 
Cruikshanks Works, which shows clearly that 
the late Keeper of the Prints was greatly at sea 
in the matter. 

Referring to the " Fireside Scene," he says : 
"The plate was used in 1838, when the work re- 
appeared in three volumes, in lieu of the preceding 
(' Rose Maylie and Oliver at Agnes's Tomb '), 
which was thought by the publisher to be of too 
melancholy a nature for the conclusion of the 
story." From which any casual reader would be 


led to the conclusion that "Rose Maylie and 
Oliver at the Tomb " was the suppressed plate, 
and that the "Fireside Scene" was substituted 
for it, whereas exactly the opposite was the case. 

The novel was ready for publication complete 
in three volumes in the autumn of 1838. The 
illustrations for the last volume had been some- 
what hastily executed "in a lump." And Dickens, 
who always was most solicitous about the work of 
his collaborating artists, did not set eyes upon 
them until the eve of publication. One of them, 
" The Fireside Scene," he so strongly objected to 
that it had to be cancelled, and he wrote to the 
artist asking him to design " the plate afresh and 
to do so at once, in order that as few impressions 
as possible of the present one may go forth." 1 
The publication of the book, however, could not 
be delayed, and thus we have it that the earliest 
issue of the first edition of Oliver Twist in book- 
form contains the " Fireside Scene " opposite p. 313, 
vol. in., which it is the desire of every Dickens 
collector to possess, while the later issue of the 
latter part of the novel in Sentleys Miscellany 

1 Vide Forster, Life of Charles Dickens, vol. i. p. 101. (Library 


contains that which Cruikshank substituted for it 
at the novelist's request. 

Both the plates are here reproduced for the 
convenience of the owner of this or that edition. 

But this is not all that has to be said upon the 
subject of the "Rose and Oliver" plates, and 
again I claim to be the purveyor of a little ex- 
clusive information. 1 

It has generally been supposed that Cruikshank, 
although naturally put about by Dickens's dis- 
approval, did immediately proceed to carry out his 
author's suggestion. For example, we find Mr. 
Francis Phillimore, in his introduction to the 
Dickens Memento, published by Messrs. Field and 
Tuer, saying : " The author was so disgusted with 
the last plate that he politely but forcibly asked 
Cruikshank to etch another. This was done at 
once." I am, however, in a position to prove that 
this was emphatically not the case. And it is 
what one would naturally expect, for George was 
the last person in the world to acquiesce calmly 
and unhesitatingly in the condemnation of work 
which he had himself deemed sufficiently good. 

1 I first alluded to this in Temple Bar for September 1892. 


In the year 1892 I had the privilege of examin- 
ing the splendid collection of Mr. H. W. Bruton, 
of Gloucester, which has since been dispersed. 
On that occasion he drew my attention to a 
unique impression of the "Fireside" plate in his 
possession, from which we (he was the first to see 
the point) drew the necessary conclusion which 
follows. The importance of the impression lies in 
the fact that it shows that a large amount of 
added work had been put into the plate, prin- 
cipally of a stipply nature, after all the impressions 
which had so displeased Dickens had been struck 
off. By which it is evident that George tried 
hard to improve the original plate instead of at 
once falling in with the suggestion that the subject 
should be designed afresh. This proof was prob- 
ably submitted to Dickens and again rejected, for 
no impressions of the plate with stippled addi- 
tions are known to have been published. 1 And 
plainly it was only after considerable effort to 
make the plate do, that the artist designed the 

1 It need hardly be said that if any of my readers finds that his 
copy contains ' ' The Fireside Scene " differing from the first of those 
here produced, he may congratulate himself on the possession of a 
great rarity. 


s l 


g < 

s * 

s a 

i E 


far worse picture of "Rose May lie and Oliver 
before the Tomb of Agnes," which is a question- 
able adornment to the later issues of the story. 
And had it not been for the delay so caused, it is 
more than probable that the suppressed plate 
would have been even a greater rarity than it 
actually is. 

As I have said above, Mr. Bruton's collection 
was dispersed in 1897 at Sotheby's. No. 145 in 
that sale was an unrivalled run of the Oliver Twist 
illustrations, seeing that it consisted of a complete 
set of proofs of the etchings, and included, with 
other rarities, the unique proof just mentioned. 
The lot sold for 32 : 10s. By the kindness of its 
late owner, I am enabled to present to my readers 
a reproduction of this unique impression of the 
plate in its second state. 

So much then for the story of the suppressed 
plate. There is, however, something more to be 
said of its substitute. 

If we turn to our edition of Oliver Twist, so 
long as it does not happen to be one published 
subsequently to 1845, or one containing the sup- 
pressed plate, we shall find Rose standing with her 


arm on Oliver's shoulder before a tablet put up to 
his mother's memory, and we shall find that Rose's 
dress is light in colour save for a dark shawl or 
lace fichu, which is thrown across her shoulders 
and bosom. In the 1846 edition of the book, the 
plate has been largely touched up and shaded, and 
Rose's dress turned into a black one. 1 Now, it is 
perfectly evident that it is the old plate altered 
and used over again and not a new plate copied 
from the old, for every line and every dot in the 
illustration to the earlier editions reappears in this. 
The perplexing matter that I have to draw your 
attention to, however, is that, in the same lot (145) 
at the Bruton sale mentioned above, there was 
sold a proof of this plate with Rose Maylie in the 
black dress, and this a proof before letters, an im- 
possible nut for the amateur to crack who does not 
know that the lettering of plates may be stopped- 
out or burnished away or covered up for the strik- 
ing off of misleading impressions ; from which the 
moral may be drawn that it is better to believe in 
proof impressions after letters where they are well 

1 The dress is also black in a reprint of the first edition published 
by Messrs. Macmillan in 1892, and in the large edition with the 
illustrations coloured, published by Messrs. Chapman and Hall in 1895. 

5 4 


authenticated, than to presume that a proof is 
before letters merely because those letters do not 
appear. Verb, sat sap. The plate in this state is 
here reproduced for the sake of comparison. 

Before passing from Oliver Twist, it should 
be pointed out that the first issue of 1838, which 
contains the suppressed plate, is also differentiated 
from the second issue of the same year by what 
is sometimes alluded to as the " suppressed title- 
page," which runs as follows : " Oliver Twist ; / 
or, the / ' Parish Boy's Progress ; ' / by ' Boz,' / in 
three volumes,/ Vol. I (II. or III.)/ London:/ 

Richard Bentley, New Burlington Street. / / 


The second issue, with the substituted plate, 
has : " Oliver Twist / By / Charles Dickens, / 
Author of 'The Pickwick Papers,'" the rest of 
the title being as in the first. It is curious to 
notice, further, that in a later edition the original 
title is resumed. 

So much for Oliver Twist. We must not, 
however, quit Dickens without mentioning one or 
two other items, which more or less of right find 
their place in a treatise on " Suppressed Plates." 


There is, for example, the etched title-page to 
the first issue of the first edition of Martin 
Chuzzkwit, where the reward on the direction post 
appears as "100" instead of "100," which is 
often wrongly labelled "suppressed." As a matter 
of fact it was not suppressed at all. It is nothing 
more than the first state of a plate which was after- 
wards altered. However, the bait is so valuable 
a one with which to entice the bibliomaniac, that 
there is no prospect of the description being lightly 
relinquished, and as it is one object of this treatise 
to protect the unwary, allusion to it is not out of 
place. The fact that it is the title-page issued 
after the book had appeared serially with its forty 
illustrations, disposes of any lingering idea that in 
acquiring it we are assured of the possession of 
early impressions of the other plates. But the 
undiscriminating bibliomaniac requires no logical 
justification, and the plate will still retain its 
market value. 

A like variation is to be found in a well-known 
etching by George Cruikshank, entitled "The 
Worship of Wealth." The head of Mammon is 
represented by a small money-bag, and the 


features of the face by the letters GOLD. Of 
this plate only one state was known until in a 
happy moment one of our best-known collectors 
discovered and secured a unique proof with all the 
letters printed in reverse, thus : 

triumph which only the true dilettante will 
appreciate at its proper value. 

Another variation of the same kind is to be 
found in the first and second issues of Pine's 
beautiful edition of Horace (1733), in which the 
text is engraved throughout. In the first there is 
the misprint "Post est" on the medal of Ceesar. 
In the second "Potest" has been substituted. 
Copies containing the mistake fetch twice as much 
in the market as those containing the correction ! 
This is, however, justifiable, as the mistake con- 
notes an early set of impressions. 

Another Dickens plate demanding mention is 
the exceedingly rare etched frontispiece by " Phiz," 
to be found in only a few copies of The Strange 


Gentleman, published in 1837 by Messrs. Chapman 
and Hall. This " Comic Burletta " was founded 


upon " The Great Winglebury Duel," in Sketches 
by Box, and was first performed at the St. James's 
Theatre in September 1836. A second edition was 


published in 1860 with a coloured etching by Mr. 
F. W. Pailthorpe, the last illustrator to carry on 
the tradition of Cruikshank and H. K. Browne. 
The " Phiz " etching is here reproduced. Even the 
second edition is extremely rare, and readily sells 
for between two and three pounds. The reason 
for the disappearance of the " Phiz " plate is not 
known, and I only give particulars of it here 
because of its excessive rarity, and because it is 
constantly referred to as "suppressed," though 
with no strict justification. The British Museum 
copy of the book only contains Mr. Pailthorpe's 
frontispiece, but a copy with the "Phiz" plate 
is to be found in the Forster Library, South 

Then, again, we have Dickens's Pictures from 
Italy, published by Messrs. Bradbury and Evans 
in 1846, with the beautiful "vignette illustrations 
on the wood," by that master engraver, Samuel 
Palmer. For some reason or other that represent- 
ing " The Street of the Tombs, Pompeii," on the 
title-page, disappears after the exhaustion of the 
first and second editions, both published in the 
same year. It reappears, however, in the late 



reprint of 1888, and is also only here alluded to 
because sometimes referred to as "suppressed." 

The last of the Dickens illustrations germane to 
our subject is that much-desired etching of "The 
Free and Easy," which should be found opposite 
page 29 of the " second series " of Sketches by Boz. 
Both the first and second series were originally 
published in 1836. In 1839 another edition 
appeared with all the etchings to the original 
edition enlarged (except " The Free and Easy," 
which was cancelled), and with thirteen additional 
plates. An edition on the lines of the first issue of 
the second series, only with the illustrations in 
lithography, was published in Calcutta in 1837. 

It is important, in collating the first editions of 
the Sketches, to bear in mind the fact that the 
first series was in two volumes and the second in 
one. Otherwise it is impossible to understand 
why " Vol. III." is engraved on each of the plates 
in the second series. As showing how eagerly 
these volumes in fine condition, and of course 
uncut and in the original cloth binding, are sought 
after, it may be mentioned that thirty pounds is by 
no means an unheard-of price. 


Unfortunately the plates will in most cases be 
found to be badly foxed. The tissue of the paper 
itself has in many cases been attacked by damp 
and rotted right through. 

In such cases any remedy except the drastic 
one of punching is of course out of the question. 
Hence the rarity of a really " desirable " set of the 
plates, a rarity which is largely due to the hoard- 
ing away of books in glass cases ; for books require 
fresh, dry air, with the rest of God's creatures. 

It may not be out of place here, whilst on the 
subject of foxing, to warn the collector that every 
plate in a book should be carefully examined 
before any extravagant price is given for what is 
called a fine copy. No doubt we are much 
indebted to the clever "doctors" of prints who 
punch the fatal spots out and pulp them in, who 
fill up the worm-holes and vamp up the cleaned 
prints with green-wood smoke and coffee infusions 
to a respectable appearance of age. At the same 
time we must never allow ourselves to forget 
that there are such occupations as vamping and 
" improving," and that it is not for vamped and 
improved copies that we should pay excessive prices. 



IN Chapter III. we have incidentally considered 
the suppressed grotesque border to the etching of 
"The Last Song" by George Cruikshank in the 
Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi. In this chapter 
we shall treat of certain other suppressions to 
which the "inimitable" George's work was sub- 

The first to which I shall direct your attention 
has a curious and romantic history attaching to it, 
instinct with the rough and brutal methods of our 
immediate ancestors. It is a highly-coloured etched 
broadside published in 1815, the very year of the 
tragic death of the gifted and ill-fated Gillray, 
whose mantle, as political caricaturist, was now 
fallen upon his brilliant young contemporary. 



These were the days of hard hitting, of reckless 
charges, of imprisonment for libel, of dramatic 
political episodes, and the wonder is that George 
Cruikshank escaped the fates of the Burdetts, the 
Hones, and the Hobhouses of the period. The fact 
is that George was a very shrewd young man and 
had a very shrewd idea of how far it was safe to 
go. Indeed, in this partially suppressed cartoon 
we find him upon the very verge of recklessness 
and only drawing back from danger just in the nick 
of time. 

I have spoken of the partial suppression of this 
broadside, and in this partial cancellation it is 
differentiated from all others with which we have 
hitherto dealt. Brutal enough as is the satire as 
we see it, there is a brutality curiously hidden 
within, which, unsuspected by the uninitiated, 
proves to what astounding lengths satire of that 
period was sometimes ready to go. 

Before dealing in detail with this "Financial 
Survey of Cumberland or the Beggar's Petition " 
it will be as well to relate the circumstances which 
led up to its perpetration. 

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, born 


1771, was perhaps the best hated of all the royal 
personages of the period then in England, and this 
notwithstanding the fact that he was a man of 
conspicuous bravery. He was, for a few years 
after Queen Victoria's accession, next heir to the 
throne of England. Later he ascended the throne 
of Hanover under the regulations of the Salic law, 
and gained the affection of his people, proving 
himself a wise and beneficent ruler. Probably 
William IV. put his character into a nutshell 
when he said : " Ernest is not such a bad fellow, 
but if any one has a corn he is sure to tread on it." 

However that may be, there is no doubt that 
there is hardly a crime in the whole decalogue 
which was not at one time or another laid at his 
door, and not the least among these was the crime 
of murder. 

To quote the succinct account of this affair 
given in the Dictionary of National Biography : 
"On the night of 31st May 1810 the duke was 
found in his apartments in St. James's Palace with 
a terrible wound in his head, which would have 
been mortal had not the assassin's weapon struck 
against the duke's sword. Shortly afterwards his 


valet, Sellis, 1 was found dead in his bed with his 
throat cut. On hearing the evidence of the 
surgeons and other witnesses, the coroner's jury 
returned a verdict that Sellis had committed suicide 
after attempting to assassinate the duke. The 
absence of any reasonable motive . . . caused this 
event to be greatly discussed, and democratic 
journalists did not hesitate to hint that he really 
murdered Sellis." One of these, Henry White, 
was sentenced in 1815 to fifteen months' imprison- 
ment and a fine of 200 for publishing the rumour. 
The story again cropped up in 1832, when the 
duke had made himself particularly obnoxious to 
the radical press, and was exploited by a pamphleteer 
named Phillips. The duke prosecuted him, and he 
was promptly found guilty and sentenced to six 
months' imprisonment. 

Notwithstanding this, there was little abatement 
in the persecution of the duke. Even Lord 
Brougham in the House of Lords sneeringly called 

1 Not Serres, as Reid has it in his descriptive account of Cruik- 
shank's works. The keeper of the prints evidently confused the name 
of the valet with that of Mrs. Olive Serres, who later on called herself 
Princess Olive of Cumberland, and claimed to be the duke's legitimate 


him to his face "the illustrious duke illustrious 
only by courtesy." I take up a few consecutive 
numbers of that venomous little contemporary 
paper, Figaro in London, and find week by week 
some very plain speaking. Here are a few 
examples : 

" That he's ne'er known to change his mind 

Is surely nothing strange ; 

For no one ever yet could find 

He'd any mind to change." 

Again : 

" He boasts about the truth, I've heard. 

And vows he'd never break it ; 
Why zounds a man must keep his word 
When nobody will take it." 

Again, referring to a youth dressed a la Prince 
de Cumberland, who had been brought up at Bow 
Street charged with being an expert pickpocket, 
Figaro says: "A similarity to the Duke of 
Cumberland is a very serious matter, and in the 
opinion of Mr. Halls (the police magistrate) quite 
sufficient to entitle any one to a couple of months' 
imprisonment, as a common thief or an incorrigible 

Again : 



Found dead of fright, a child, (how sad a case !) 
Verdict Saw Cumberland's mustachioed face." 

Again : " The new piece announced at Drury 
Lane under the title of The Daemon Duke or The 
Mystic Branch has no reference whatever to his 
Royal Highness of Cumberland." 

But these might be multiplied almost to infinity. 
The examples quoted make it sufficiently plain 
why it was that the Whig Cabinet of the day felt 
it advisable to hurry on our late Queen's marriage. 

So much for a general review of the duke's 
career. We will now return to the year 1815 and 
the publication of the broadside with which we are 
more particularly concerned. 

The duke had just announced his intention of 
marrying the Princess of Salm, who had been 
twice a widow. The Prince Regent had raised no 
objection, but the Queen, who had a rooted 
aversion to second marriages, made no secret of 
her disapproval. The country, too, was indignant, 
because another royal marriage spelt, in accordance 
with what was now the ordinary usage, a further 
burden upon the exchequer. 


On July 3 the proposal was made in the 
Commons to increase the duke's pension of 
18,000 a year, which he held in addition to his 
salary of 3000 a year as Colonel of the 1st 
Hussars, by 6000. The House was equally 
divided on the vote, when a dramatic incident 
occurred. Lord Cochrane, heir to the Dundonald 
peerage, and a member of the House of Commons, 
had, in the previous year, been wrongfully found 
guilty of participation in a Stock Exchange fraud 
and had been imprisoned. On this very 3rd day 
of July he was released from prison, and im- 
mediately repaired to Westminster. The House 
was at that moment going to a division. His 
lordship entered just in time to record his casting 
vote against the increase of the duke's pension, and 
thus by an extraordinary coincidence the duke was 
the poorer and the country the richer by 6000 a 

This is the moment seized by Cruiksh.ank in the 
broadside here reproduced. Before the half-open 
door of " St. Stephen's," behind which is seen a 
crowd of members, Lord Cochrane fires, from a 
mortar decorated with a full-bottomed wig, a 


cannon-ball labelled " casting vote." This, striking 
the duke full in the rear, drives him towards a 
bank on which stand three grenadiers, the Princess 
of Salm (recognisable by the flag which she 
carries, labelled " Psalms ") and her little boy, who 

My daddy is a grenadier 

And he's pleas'd my Mammy O, 

With his long srvoard and broadswoard 
And his bayonet so handy O. 

The duke, from whose hand falls his petition, 
and whose head is adorned with a cuckold's horns, 
cries aloud, " Pity the sorrow of a poor young 
man " ; whilst Cochrane thunders out, " No, no, 
we'll have no petitions here. Do you thint (sic) 
we are not up to your hoaxing, cadging tricks ? 
You vagrant, do you think we'll believe all you 
say or swear ? Do you think that your services 
or your merits will do you any good here ? If 
you do, I can tell you from experience that you 
are cursedly mistaken. So set off and don't show 
your ugly face here again. If you do, shiver my 
timbers if I don't send you to Ellenborough 
Castle : aye, aye, my boy, I'll clap you in the 
grated chamber, where there's neither door, window, 


onr (sic) fireplace. I'll put you in the Stocks ! I'll 
put you in the Pillory ! I'll fine you. I'll, I'll 

play hell with you ! D me, I think I have 

just come in time to give you a shot between wind 
and water." 

On the ground below the flying duke lie docu- 
ments recording his pensions and salaries. 

No wonder, you will say, that such a scandalous 
attack upon a personage so near the throne should 
be suppressed with a high hand. The marvel is 
that artist and publisher should have escaped the 
fate of Henry White and the pamphleteer Phillips. 
But you will be more surprised than ever when 
you learn that not only did artist and publisher go 
scot-free, but that the plate, so far from being 
suppressed, was published and scattered broadcast 
amongst the people without protest. 

Why, then, it will be asked, does it take its 
place in a treatise on suppressed plates ? I will 
tell you. 

Do you not notice in the darker impression of 
the plate here reproduced darker because the 
original has been painted that such perspective as 
the picture has is destroyed by a great black blot 


which reaches from the feet of the three soldiers 
right down to the path in the right-hand lower 
corner of the design ? Well, that great black blot 
covers what would have inevitably landed George 
Cruikshank and Mr. W. N. Jones of 5 Newgate 
Street, publisher, in a larger building higher up 
the same street, if it had not been for a happy 
afterthought of Mr. W. N. Jones, which took 
shape in a liberal use of lamp-black. 1 

On the space so covered the reckless George, 
unmindful of the fate of Henry White, had etched 
the scantily clothed figure of the unhappy valet 
Sellis, with bleeding throat, crying aloud, " Is 
this a razor that I see before me ? Thou canst 
not say I did it." 

After but one or two proofs had been pulled, 
George and his publisher would seem to have 
become appalled at their temerity, and the plate 
was only issued coloured and with the peccant 

1 This use of lamp-black has its parallel in the case of one of 
the tailpieces to Bewick's Birds, in the first edition of which an 
apprentice was employed to veil certain indelicacies with a coat of 
ink. Unfortunately, from want of density, the colouring rather serves 
to accentuate than hide the offending details. In the next edition a 
plug was inserted in the block and two bars of wood engraved in the 
interests of decency. 


figure blotted out. For many years I hoped and 
hoped in vain to come across an uncoloured proof 
displaying the hidden figure. But it was not until 
1905 that I was fortunate enough to light upon 
the probably unique proof here reproduced, which 
had passed out of the Bruton collection into that of 
the omnivorous collector, the late Edwin Truman. 

For the sake of those who have preserved the 
valuable catalogue of the sale in 1897 of the Bruton 
collection of the works of George Cruikshank, it 
should be observed that Reid's misnomer of the 
valet to which I have drawn attention above has 
been there repeated. 

So much, then, for the partially suppressed 
broadside of 1815, which incidentally may be 
looked upon as the forerunner of the blottesque 
censorship of Russian newspapers. We will now 
pass on to another broadside which was not only 
suppressed in full, but of which the copies that had 
already been sold were assiduously bought up. 

The circumstances surrounding this plate are 
by no means so dramatic as those with which we 
have last dealt. At the same time, by means of it 
we obtain one of those sharp contrasts in political 


moods and tenses which pleasurably tickle the 
imagination. We learn how little is absolute in 
life, how much is relative. We realise how the 
reactionary of to-day may have been the reformer 

of yesterday. In a word, we see in this most 

conservative member of the Russell administration 
of 1846-1852 and of the Coalition of 1853, in 
this complacent recipient of the peerage of 
Broughton de Gyfford and the Grand Cross of 
the Bath, in this happy husband of a Marquis's 
daughter, we see, I say, in this Tory nobleman of 
the 'fifties the irreconcilable John Cam Hobhouse 
of the early years of the century, committed to 
Newgate for breach of privilege, the author of 
the subversive Letters to an Englishman, and the 
representative for Parliament of the Westminster 

In Cruikshank's broadside here reproduced the 
future President of the Board of Control is 
represented twirling his thumbs in enforced retire- 
ment and with full leisure to repent of his indiscre- 
tions. Above the mantelpiece representations of 
St. Stephen's and Newgate are placed in sharp 
contrast. Below the last a former occupant of the 


cell has scratched a rude gibbet. The grate is 
empty. On the table stand an empty pewter pot 
and pipe. On the wall is seen a long quotation 
from his anonymous pamphlet A Trifling Mistake, 
for which he has been committed to prison. This, 
with a barbed addition, gives the title to the 
broadside itself. The quotation runs : 

" What prevents ye people from walking down to ye house 
and pulling out ye members by ye ears, locking up their 
doors and flinging ye key into ye Thames? Is it any 
majesty which lodges in the members of that assembly ? Do 
we love them ? Not at all : we have an instinctive horror 
and disgust at the very abstract idea of ye boroughmonger. 
Do we respect them ? Not in the least. Do we regard 
them as endowed with any superior qualities? On the 
contrary, there is scarcely a poorer creature than your mere 
member of Parliament; though, in his corporate capacity, 
ye earth furnishes not so absolute a bully. Their true 
practical protectors, then the real efficient an ti -reformers, 
are to be found at ye Horse Guards and ye Knightsbridge 
Barracks. As long as the House of Commons majorities 
are backed by the regimental muster roll, so long may those 
who have got the tax power keep it and hang those who 
resist"! !! !!1 !!! 

Vide Trifling Mistake. 

Below this hangs a bill headed " Little Hob in 
the Well." 


The reproduction of the etching here given is 
from a very interesting touched proof in the 
British Museum. Upon it the artist's work in 
pencil can be plainly traced. To the right of 
the picture of Newgate another roughly drawn 
gibbet can be distinguished. On the bill the 
words have been added, "A New Song in 
Defence of the People, corrected," etc. The 
profile of the prisoner has been carefully reduced, 
and a punning sub-title to the whole added, " How 
Cam you to be in that Hobble ? " 

The date on the margin is January 1, 1819 
(obviously a mistake for 1820), and its publication, 
no doubt, went some way towards Hobhouse's 
election as member for Westminster, which took 
place immediately after his release on the 20th 
day of the month in the year 1820. 

After his elevation to the peerage Hobhouse 
took no active part in public affairs. He died as 
lately as 1869, leaving no issue. Probably the plate 
was suppressed on the ground that it contained 
the long quotation given above from the lawless 
pamphlet for which he was imprisoned. 

As I have said in an earlier chapter, it is not my 



intention to make this treatise in any way a devil's 
directory for those in search of salacious curiosities. 
I shall therefore not dwell upon the suppressed 
woodcut, which is rather coarse than loose, of 
"The Dead Rider" in the Italian Tales of 1823. 
I merely mention it for the sake of those who 
may be collating the book, and would find them- 
selves misled by Reid's note on the subject. He 
speaks of the "Elopement" woodcut being "wanting 
in two or three copies consulted of the first edition," 
as though this were a matter for surprise. He fails 
to draw the very obvious conclusion that "The 
Elopement" was substituted for "The Dead Rider," 
so that the number of illustrations might continue 
to tally with the announcement on the title-page, 
" Sixteen illustrative drawings by George Cruik- 
shank." He has apparently been confused by the 
fact, which I notice confuses a good many second- 
hand booksellers, that every copy has a woodcut 
entitled "The Dead Rider," but that it is only 
the first issue that has two woodcuts with the 
same title. 

And, whilst touching on the subject of Cruik- 
shank's early indiscretions, it will, I think, be only 


fair to repeat a story of pretty and spontaneous 
atonement which I have told elsewhere, and which 
deals with another suppressed broadside. 

No. 887 in Reid's catalogue is "Accidents 
in High Life, or Royal Hobbys broke down, 
Dedicated to the Society for the Suppression of 
Vice." Its companion picture is " Royal Hobbys 
of the Hertfordshire Cock Horse," which was 
suppressed as being too suggestive even for so 
latitudinarian an age as that of the Regency. In 
the former the artist portrays the discomfiture 
of the Prince and the Marchioness of Hertford 
through the pole of the hobby-horse, upon which 
they have been riding, breaking and throwing both 
of them to the ground. The lady is cursing her 
folly in trusting herself to "such an old stick," 
while her admirer is exclaiming that he shall try 
the Richmond Road in the future, the Hertford 
one being so unsatisfactory. The Duke of York 
is suffering from a similar disaster, and congratulat- 
ing himself upon the softness of the cushion by 
which his fall has been broken, in allusion to his 
income of 10,000 for having charge of his father. 

Now Mr. Bruton, who, like the late Mr. Truman, 


had the advantage of George Cruikshank's friend- 
ship in later years, was able to obtain authentication 
or repudiation of doubtful unsigned work from the 
artist himself, and, amongst others, this plate was 
submitted to him for judgment. The man's honesty 
forced him to acknowledge himself to be the author 
of this piece of full-blooded vulgarity, but his regret 
has altered the usual laconic record of " Not by me, 
G. Ck.," or "By my brother, I. R C.," pencilled on 
the plate, to " Sorry to say this is by me, G. C." 
The old man was, when he came to look back upon 
a long life of good and evil mixed, somewhat more 
human than that terribly pious hero of Pope's- 
Who calmly looked on either life, and here 
Saw nothing to regret, or there to bear ; 
From nature's temp'rate feast rose satisfy'd, 
Thank'd heav'n that he had liv'd, and that he dy'd. 

He looked back with genuine remorse upon 
youthful extravagances, and, though doubtless 
inclined by nature to be something of a poseur, 
and though he attitudinised somewhat too much 
over his virtuous fads at last, was not going to 
bolster up his reputation by an easy forgetfulness 
of early indiscretions. 



Only a few words need be said of the other 
Cruikshank suppressions here reproduced. The 


iye u/e 

first is the well-known plate "Philoprogenitive- 
ness," which was published in the earliest separate 
edition of that noble Essay on the Genius of George 
Cruikshank, written by Thackeray for, and reprinted 


from, The Westminster Review in 1840. And surely 
it was a prurient and unnatural squeamishness 
which condemned this illustration to exclusion 
in the subsequent editions. It is from the 
Phrenological Illustrations, published in 1826, one 
of the most famous of Cruikshank's publications. 
I shall follow Thackeray's excellent example of 
refraining from any description, and just leave the 
design to speak for itself, for it is a ridiculous task 
"to translate his designs into words, and go to the 
printer's box for a description of all that fun and 
humour which the artist can produce by a few 
skilful turns of his needle." 

The second is the cancelled wood engraving 
entitled "Drop it," which appears on page 18 of 
the first edition of Talpa ; or the Chronicle of 
a Clay Farm, an Agricultural Fragment, by 
C. M. H(oskyns), published in 1853. For some 
unknown reason it disappears from subsequent 
editions, and is only of importance to those who 
pride themselves on being the possessors of Cruik- 
shank editiones principes. 

There is another Cruikshank suppression which 
might, were we hard up for material, be dragged 



into a treatise on suppressed illustrations. I refer 
to a wood engraving of the redoubtable George 
himself taking his publisher, Brooks, by the nose 
with a pair of tongs, which resulted in the 
suppression of the pamphlet entitled A Pop-gun 
fired off by George Cruikshank, etc., in which it 

"Drop it!" 

appeared. But if we were to open these pages 
to the consideration of suppressed books and 
pamphlets, I should soon find my publishers 
remonstrating, and the volume too big to handle. 
Further, it affords me the gratifying opportunity 
of referring the reader to a small book of mine, 
published in 1897, by Mr. W. P. Spencer, of 
27 New Oxford Street, and entitled George 


Cruikshantis Portraits of Himself, which I, as 
the author, of course consider has not attained 
the circulation it deserves. There will be found 
a full account of the suppressed pamphlet, 
together with a reproduction of the offending 

Let me close this chapter with " A Cruikshank 
Outrage," which I originally contributed to The 
Gentleman s Magazine. It is, I think, sufficiently 
apropos, and will, I hope, appeal to all good 

This is the bookcase, this the key ; 
None may open this lock but me ; 

And only those of the cult may come 
Into my sanctum sanc-to-rum. 

Swear " by George " on his " Omnibus " 
You are assuredly one of us. 

Swear " by George " on his " Almanack " 
You will return each volume back. 

Swear by te Grimm " in the earliest state 
Theft and pillage you reprobate. 

Yes, that's bound by Riviere, but 
Here's the original cloth, uncut. 

The " Bee and the Wasp " on India, tilt, 
Zaehnsdorf binder, morocco, gilt. 

But all my (t Scourges " plain bound shall bide 
Plenty of " guilt " may be found inside. 


Here's my " Omnibus/' worth a fief 
Because I've the unpaged preface-leaf. 

(t London Characters," set complete, 
Sm. 8vo, in hlf. elf. neat. 

Here a set of gigantic frauds 
In the original LABELLED boards. 

" Oliver Twist," as you will have guessed, 
The " Rose and Oliver " plate suppressed : 

Not with the stippling over- writ 
Only Bruton l can show you IT. 

And here " The Bottle " COLOURED, date 

Yes, no doubt, 'twas among the first 
Thrusts that the Master launched at Thirst. 

! George, you say, was at best, you think, 
As a Temperance man denouncing drink ! 

!! You dare tell me you interlope 

In quest of books for your " Band of Hope " !! 

!!! You swore "by George " on his " Omnibus " 
You were assuredly one of us !!! 

!!!! Avaunt, I prithee, aroynt, vacate 

This orthodox shrine to George the Great !!!! 

For only those of the cult may come 
Into my sanctum sanc-to-rum. 

1 Since the Bruton sale in 1897 this, alas, is no longer true. 




IN Mr. Austin Dobson's Hogarth, to which all 
students of that master are so deeply indebted, 
the following sentence concludes the list of 
" Prints of an Uncertain Date " : " It has been 
thought unnecessary to include two or three 
designs, the grossness of which neither the in- 
genuity of the artist nor the coarse taste of his 
time can reasonably be held to excuse." And in 
this book I have made it a cardinal point to 
emulate Mr. Dobson's excellent example. 

We remember in one of Mr. G. Russell's amus- 
ing books the story of the erstwhile Member of 
Parliament who had accepted a peerage, not- 
withstanding his profession of democratic senti- 
ments. Thereupon one of his late supporters, 



with excellent, though somewhat brutal, metaphor, 

remarked, " Mr. says as how he's going to the 

House of Lords to leaven it. I tell you he can't 
no more leaven the House of Lords than you can 
sweeten a cart-load of muck with a pot of 
marmalade." Per contra, let us always bear in 
mind, that were the cart full of marmalade, and 
the pot of muck, the latter would be fully 
sufficient to render the whole an abomination. 
Fortunately for us, the Hogarth "Suppressed 
Plates" which are befitting are of exceptional 
interest. And it may as well be pointed out here 
that those peculiarly gross ones which are often 
alluringly alluded to as " suppressed " are nothing 
of the sort. So far from being indeed effectively 
withdrawn from observation, they have had, as a 
matter of fact, particular attention drawn to them 
by the fussy ingenuity with which their conceal- 
ment has been emphasised. 

The first of the Hogarth plates which we here 
reproduce "Enthusiasm Delineated" is of far 
greater intrinsic importance than any of those 
with which we have already dealt in the preceding 
chapters. It differs essentially from them not 


only in the fact that here the artist himself is the 
fount and origin of the suppression but also in the 
fact that it is a fine example of those palimpsest 
plates of which more particular description will be 
found in later chapters of this book. Peculiar 
interest, too, attaches to the circumstance that, 
superb as it was in execution, and elaborate to a 
degree though it was in conception, it was no 
sooner finished than the artist deliberately decided 
against its publication, and destroyed the engrav- 
ing after only two impressions had been taken 
from the copper. Fortunately for us, one of these 
is now in the possession of the British Museum. 

It will be interesting to those who are the 
happy possessors of Hogarth Illustrated and 
the Anecdotes to compare this with the re- 
duced copy (a very different matter) made by 
Mills and published in these volumes. For it 
must always be remembered that Hogarth's auto- 
graph engravings are infinitely more interesting 
than the copies, however eminent the journeyman 
engraver may have been. 

Another plate was engraved by Mills of the size 
of the original, and published separately by Ireland 

fs to t/it Fig tines in 


A.Afta Roffhajd. ^.Afta-RuJbens. C^4/ltr Rembrandt : n.E.F.G.n^rt Imitations ofctlurRrintcrs; 
*Trom Ske/cf us JbyHf garth, on the margins of die Original li-ifus. 


in 1795. The date of the original plate is given 
in the British Museum Catalogue as 1739, but how 
that date is arrived at I am at a loss to under- 

It will be noticed that there are upon the 
margin of our reproduction some curious re- 
marques inscribed "the windmill," "the scales," 
and others. These were drawn in pen-and-ink by 
Hogarth on the margins of the two original im- 
pressions. They also appear engraved in facsimile 
on the second state of Mills's full-sized plate. It 
will therefore be well for owners of this last not 
to jump to the hasty conclusion that they are the 
fortunate possessors of one of the two impressions 
mentioned above! It should be added that the 
MS. inscription on the British Museum copy 
differs considerably from that engraved by Mills. 

The method by which the suppression of this 
plate came about is exceedingly curious. 

It is probable that, after the design was com- 
pleted, Hogarth came to the conclusion that the 
intention of the satire might be mistaken, and 
that, instead of bringing ridicule upon "the 
superstitious absurdities of popery and ridiculous 


personification delineated by ancient painters," it 
might be considered that his objective was religion 

If this were so, the episode redounds greatly 
to the artist's credit, and throws an effective light 
upon a little-known side of his character. It was 
an act of great nobleness to suppress what was the 
result of long toil, nay, more than that, what was 
perhaps his highest mental, though by no means 
his highest artistic, achievement, from what some 
might consider hyper- conscientious motives. 

It must be remembered that Hogarth lived in 
a gross and irreligious age, and that what appears 
to us exceedingly profane was largely the result of 
the outspokenness of the times. 

Ireland says that he altered and altered this 
plate piecemeal until its final suppression. This, 
however, I venture to doubt, for reasons given 
below. At all events, in the end he had beaten 
out and re-engraved every figure save one, and 
changed, as Mr. Dobson says, what "was a com- 
pact satire" into "a desultory work a work of 
genius for a lesser man, but scarcely worthy 
of Hogarth." The final design was entitled 


" Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism : a 
Medley," and was published in March 1762. 

Let us now compare the two designs. 
Hogarth's general purpose in the first was, in his 
own words, to give " a lineal representation of the 
strange effects of literal and low conceptions of 
Sacred Beings, as also of the idolatrous tendency 
of Pictures in Churches and Prints in Religious 
Books." In the second his text was, " Believe not 
every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are 
of God, because many false Prophets are gone out 
into the world." 

Before comparing the designs in detail, I should 
like to say that, besides carefully examining the 
plates for myself, I have collated the various 
descriptions of Ireland, Nichols, Mr. Austin 
Dobson, and Mr. F. G. Stephens, whose con- 
clusions I have not hesitated to adopt, add to, 
discard or modify, as the circumstances have 
seemed to require. 

Let us now particularise the incidents portrayed 
on the two states of the plate, both of which are 
here reproduced for purposes of comparison. 

Beginning with the preacher, we notice that 


Humbly dedicated to his G 
his Graces mosl uhe-iu-ut i 


M E D'lv E Y. 


his is the only figure practically unaltered and 
common to both engravings. By his " bull-roar " 
(vide the "scale of Vociferation" hanging on 
the wall to his left) he has apparently succeeded 
in cracking the sounding-board above his head. 
Notice his shaven crown, exposed by the fallen 
wig, which intimates that he is a Papist in dis- 
guise ; and the harlequin jacket underneath his 
gown, which suggests that he is a religious merry - 
andrew. A point worth remarking is that the 
halo surrounds his wig, and not his head ! 

From his right hand (Plate I.) he suspends a 
puppet (caricatured from a picture of Raphael's) 
supporting the sacred triangle, which, in attempt- 
ing to personify the Trinity, was considered by 
some to be a profane materialisation of a mystical 
idea. This he has ingeniously turned into a grid- 
iron or trivet of the Inquisition by the simple 
addition of three legs. In Plate II. this puppet 
has been removed and its place taken by a witch, 
riding on a broom-handle, who is suckling what 
appears to be a huge rat. Beyond the preacher's 
hand we find a further addition in the shape of a 
cherub, hunting- cap on head, bearing in its mouth 



a letter directed "To St. Moneytrap." The 
sermon paper, too, has been turned about so as to 
bring the words " I speak as a fool " into greater 
prominence. In which connection it may be 
noticed that in " Enthusiasm Delineated " all the 
lettering would seem to be from the burin of 
Hogarth, whilst that in the "Medley" has been 
put in by a writing engraver, with considerable 
weakening of the general effect. Dangling from 
the preacher's left hand is a devil with a gridiron 
(after Rubens), practically identical in both plates, 
though obviously re-engraved. 

Further puppets hang ready for use on the 
panels of the pulpit. In Plate I. they are 
caricature representations, from pictures of the 
Old Masters, of Adam and Eve (suggested by 
Albert Diirer), of Peter with his Key, and Paul 
in a black periwig armed with two swords and 
elevated by high-heeled shoes (travestied from 
Rembrandt), and of Moses and Aaron. In Plate 
II. these scriptural puppets are exchanged for the 
superstitious images of Mrs. Veal's ghost (see the 
writing on the book), who, according to Defoe, 
appeared the day after her death to Mrs. Bargrave 


of Canterbury, September 8, 1705; of Julius 
Caesar's apparition, starting at its own appearance 
in the looking-glass; and of that of Sir George 
Villers (sic), not " Villiers " as Ireland has it, whose 
appearance to an officer at Windsor, charging him 
to warn his son, the Duke of Buckingham, of his 
approaching assassination, is recorded by Lord 
Clarendon and Lilly the astrologer. 

In the foreground, on the right, we have in 
both plates a most remarkable mental thermometer, 
the bulb of which is inserted in a Methodist's 
brain. In Plate I. the mercury stands at "low- 
spirits"; in Plate II. at "lukewarm." In the 
first a dove surmounts the whole ; in the second 
the Methodist's brain rests upon "Wesley's 
Sermons," and " Glanvid " (an evident misprint 
for "Glanvil") on "Witches." The lettering, too, 
is altered, and, in place of the inscription in the 
top division, is a picture of the Cock Lane Ghost, 
of which Walpole wrote " Elizabeth Canning and 
the Rabbit Women were modest impostors in 
comparison of this." The whole is surmounted by 
a figure of the Tedworth drummer immortalised 
by Addison. 


In the adjoining pew a nobleman, as can be 
seen by the decoration half concealed by his coat, 
makes love to a girl, who discards a heavenly for 
a very earthly affection, point to which is given 
by the quotation from Whitfield's hymn which 
can be read on the paper hanging over the adjacent 
clerk's desk. The "mixed expression of religious 
hypocrisy and amorous desire" on the girl's face 
is marvellously expressed. The other occupant of 
the pew is a repentant thief, as may be seen from 
the "T" branded on his cheek. 

In the first account of the plate given in the 
Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British 
Museum, the suggestion that the felon sniffs at 
a bottle of spirits held in the hands of the image 
is obviously incorrect. He is dropping his tears 
into the bottle. In Plate II. a less aristocratic 
and somewhat more decently behaved pair of 
lovers occupy the pew. The puppet held by the 
man is clearly a repetition of the Cock Lane Ghost, 
only bearing in its hand a lighted candle in place 
of a hammer. What the meaning of this is I fail 
to understand. Of the two other occupants of 
the pew one is weeping and the other asleep. 


A winged devil whispers evil thoughts into the 
sleeper's ear. 

In both plates, on a bracket attached to the 
side of the pew and inscribed " The Poor's Box," 
rests a wire rat-trap in place of the proper re- 

Turning now to the clerk's desk, which in Plate 
I. has the inscription " Cherubim and Seraph [ ] 
do cry," and in Plate II. " Continually do cry," 
we find a hideous and brutal-looking clerk singing 
lustily from a book which he half supports in his 
claw-like fingers. Supporting him are two winged 
cherubs, the ridiculous nothingness of whose 
bodies (so envied by Thackeray in his days of 
pupilage) is accentuated by the significant addition 
of ducks' feet. Their pitiful faces accord with the 
punning inscription on the edge of the desk. In 
Plate II. the ducks' feet have been removed, but 
to make up for the loss we have the clerk himself, 
now a lean and hungry-looking individual, also 
decorated with a pair of wings. 

Below the desk in Plate I. howls a dog, his 
collar engraved with Whitfield's name, whilst, 
below the hassock on which he sits, a ragged 


figure squats embracing an image. In Plate II. 
a book entitled Demonology, by K. James 1st., 
surmounted by a shoeblack's basket in which 
WhitfielcTs Journal is stuck, takes the place of the 
dog, whilst the boy of Bilston, vomiting forth 
nails, displaces the ragged figure. From the neck 
of the bottle in his hand a figure, similar to that 
held by the man in the pew, rises expelling the 
cork, which falls to the ground. 

In the forefront of Plate I. lies the bloated 
figure of Mother Douglas, who, after a most 
licentious life, was said to have become a rigid 
devotee. Hogarth, who has portrayed her in 
other of his plates, here ridicules her conversion. 
A hand belonging to a figure outside the plate 
holds a bottle of salts to her nose. In Plate II. 
Mary Tofts, ."ye Godliman woman," takes her 
place. Her well-known imposture, which it would 
be out of place to particularise here, gave rise to a 
voluminous literature, and a sheaf of remarkable 
caricatures. In place of the salts a glass of cordial 
is applied as a restorative. 

In Plate I., behind the prostrate woman a 
bearded Jew regards the preacher with mock 


devotion, what time he kills a flea between his 
thumb-nails. Before him lies a book open at a 
picture of Abraham offering up Isaac. In Plate 
II. the figure of the Jew is much weakened, whilst 
a knife inscribed " Bloody " is laid across a picture 
of an altar on the page of the open book. 

In the background of both plates a motley 
collection of devotees assists at these religious 
orgies. To the extreme left of Plate II., which, 
by the addition of several persons in the congrega- 
tion, has become greatly overcrowded, a minister 
directs the attention of a terrified wretch, whose 
hair bristles with fear, to the extraordinary double- 
globed chandelier above their heads. 

Final emphasis is given to the whole satire by 
the figure of a Turk (slightly varied in the two 
plates), who regards with amusement through the 
window the idolatry of those " dogs of Christians." 

So much for the details of the plates. As 
regards the general effect of the whole, the 
superiority of the suppressed design will be evident 
at a glance. In lighting, balance, and composition, 
the substituted design is immeasurably removed 
from the original. Nor would this be wonderful if, 


as Ireland surmised, "the alterations were made 
by degrees." 

With this view, however, I find it, as I have 
said above, impossible to concur. If, as he sug- 
gests, the figures were beaten out one by one, their 
substitutes would occupy practically identical 
spaces on the plate; but a little measurement 
demonstrates the fact that, with the exception of 
the figure of the preacher, which has been left 
where it was, and of the mental thermometer, 
which has been raised, almost the whole of the 
design has been shifted downwards. 

I am therefore inclined to think that from the 
first Hogarth, from one cause or another, made up 
his mind to change the direction of his satire, and 
at once beat out all the figures on the plate save 
one. That the arrangement of the new design 
should coincide generally with that of the first is, 
I think, no more than one would naturally expect, 
and does not in any way weaken the argument. 

In conclusion, it should be pointed out, for the 
sake of those who would study the matter further, 
that the accounts of the impressions of the several 
plates in the Catalogue of Prints and Drawings 



in the British Museum are not easily found, being 
somewhat arbitrarily placed at pages 301-307, vol. 
iii., part i., and pages 644-648, vol. ii., respectively. 

So far we have seen Hogarth in his character of 
general iconoclast and antipapist. It is now our 
business to deal with him in what was a more 
personal polemic. 

In the year 1731 Pope first published his 
notorious attack upon the Duke of Chandos in his 
satire Of Taste: An Epistle to the Right Hon. 
Richard, Earl of Burlington. 

Hogarth forthwith entered the lists, and de- 
signed and published a well - deserved pictorial 
counterblast, allusively entitled "The Man of 
Taste," or "Burlington Gate." This was im- 
mediately "suppressed" on a prosecution being 
threatened because of what was deemed its 
scurrilous and defamatory character. 

Notwithstanding this prompt suppression, how- 
ever, the design reappeared the following year, 
reduced in size, as frontispiece to a pirated edition 
of Pope's "Epistle," which was included in a 
pamphlet entitled A Miscellany on Taste; by 


Mr. Pope, etc., published by Lawton and others. 
Its contents were (1) Of Taste in Architecture, 
an Epistle to the Earl of Burlington, with Notes 
Variorum, and a complete Key ; (2) Of Mr. Pope's 
Taste in Divinity : viz., the Fall of Man, and the 
First Psalm, translated for the use of a Young 
Lady ; (3) Of Mr. Pope's Taste of Shakespeare ; 

(4) His Satire on Mr. P y ; and (5) Mr. 

Congreve's fine Epistle on Retirement and Taste, 
addressed to Lord Cobham. In this copy of the 
plate Pope, who is shown in the original by means 
of the back of his head and figure, and as wearing 
a full-bottomed wig, is more distinctly satirised, 
his face being displayed in profile, and his head 
enclosed by a linen cap instead of a wig. Amongst 
a few other minor alterations, it may be noticed 
that the palette held by Kent is transferred from 
one hand to the other. 

Referring to the republication of Hogarth's 
cartoon in this form, Mr. Dobson seems some- 
what inclined to argue against the story of 
its "suppression," or, at any rate, its effectual 
suppression; but he does not allude to the im- 
portant fact that the publisher of this pamphlet 


was also promptly prosecuted, and the sale strictly 
prohibited. From which it is clear that the 
suppression was as unqualified and as prompt as 
could reasonably be expected. 

Steevens indeed mentions a copy upon which 
the following inscription had been made : 

" Bo*, this book of Mr. Wayte, at the Fountain Tavern, 
in the Strand, in the presence of Mr. Draper, who told me 
he had it of the Printer, Mr. W. Rayner. 


The signatory was an Attorney, and the wording of 
the memorandum suggests the intended prosecution. 
To return to Pope's poem. In it he passes 
the most scathing criticism upon the splendid 
but tasteless surroundings of "Timon" at his 
stupendous villa. 

" Greatness, with Timon, dwells in such a draught 
As brings all Brobdingnag before your thought. 
To compass this, his building is a town, 
His pond an ocean, his parterre a down : 
Who but must laugh, the master when he sees, 
A puny insect, shivering at the breeze ! 
Lo, what huge heaps of littleness around ! 
The whole, a labour'd quarry above ground. 
Two cupids squirt before : a lake behind 
Improves the keenness of the northern wind. 
His gardens next your admiration call, 
On every side you look, behold the wall ! 


No pleasing intricacies intervene, 
No artful wildness to perplex the scene ; 
Grove nods at grove, each valley has a brother, 
And half the platform just reflects the other." 

And then, at the end of it all, he proceeds to 
justify Providence, in giving riches to those who 
squander them, in a way that will hardly commend 
itself to the student of the dismal science. A bad 
taste, he says in effect, employs more hands, and 
diffuses wealth more usefully than a good one ! 
One would like to have heard John Stuart Mill on 
the subject of " Pope." 

The " Epistle " was addressed to Pope's patron, 
the Earl of Burlington, who was one of the noble- 
men who had helped to screen him a few years 
before on his publication of the DitnriacL 

"Timon" (mainly though not entirely) referred to 
the Duke of Chandos, who was, Johnson says, a man 
perhaps too much delighted with pomp and show, 
but of a temper kind and beneficent, and who had 
consequently the voice of the public in his favour. 1 

1 Bowles says, " As Pope was the first to deal in personalities, the 
following severe retaliation was published in the papers of the time : 
<e Let Pope no more what Chandos builds deride, 
Because he takes not Nature for his guide ; 
Since, wond'rous critic ! in thy form we see 
That Nature may mistake, as well as he." 


A violent outcry was therefore raised against 
the ingratitude and treachery of Pope, who was 
said to have been indebted to the patronage of 
Chandos for a present of a thousand pounds, and 
who gained the opportunity of insulting him by 
the kindness of his invitation to "Canons," the 
Duke's seat near Edgware. 

In a pamphlet entitled Ingratitude published 
in 1733, of which only a portion of the frontispiece 
is in the British Museum, 1 the matter is thus alluded 
to. "A certain animal of diminutive size, who 
had translated a book into English metre (or at 
least had it translated for him), addressed himself 
to a nobleman of the first rank, and in the style of 
a gentleman-beggar requested him to subscribe a 
guinea for one of his books. The nobleman 
entertained him at dinner in a sumptuous manner, 
and continued so to do as often as the insignificant 
mortal came to his house. After dinner this 
generous man of quality, taking him aside, put a 
bank-note for five hundred pounds into his hands, 
and desired he might have but one book. But 

1 Vide Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum, 
Division I., Satires, vol. ii., No. 1935. 


what was the consequence of this ? Why, truly, 
the wretch, who is a composition of peevishness, 
spleen and envy, having no regard to the benefits 
he had received, in a few years after, and without 
any manner of provocation, or the least foundation 
for truth, publishes a satire, as he terms it, but in 
reality it is an infamous and calumnious libel, 
calculated, with all the malice and virulency 
imaginable, to defame and render odious the 
character of his best benefactor." 

From which it will be seen that Hogarth was 
not out of the fashion in retaliating upon Pope's 
devoted head with the cartoon which we here 

Let us examine it in detail. The gate, which 
is the main feature in the picture, is a travesty 
of that which is familiar to old frequenters of 
Piccadilly. Until as lately as 1868, it formed the 
frontage to Burlington House. It was the joint 
design of Lord Burlington and Colin Campbell, 
and, although well-proportioned and inoffensive, 
hardly justifies the fulsome praise which has been 
bestowed upon it. Kent, originally a coach-painter, 
with whose statue Hogarth has surmounted the 


structure, was patronised by, and brought his 
practical knowledge to the assistance of, Lord 
Burlington, himself undoubtedly a man of en- 
lightened taste. The alteration and reconstruction 
of the original Burlington House, which had been 
built by his great-grandfather, the first Earl, was 
the first of his many architectural projects. It 
was eventually taken down to make way for the 
existing Royal Academy and Science Buildings. 
Lord Hervey laughed at its inconvenience in the 
following couplet : 

" Possessed of one great hall of state, 
Without a room to sleep or eat." 

The best of Lord Burlington's and Kent's joint 
work is to be found in the northern park front of 
the Treasury Buildings in Whitehall, " which," says 
Fergusson, " if completed, would be more worthy 
of Inigo Jones than anything that has been done 
there since his time." 

Flanking the ex-coach-painter, Hogarth has 
placed reclining figures of Raphael and Michael 
Angelo, who regard the modern architect with 
respectful admiration ! On the platform is Pope 
rough - casting the front of the structure, and 


B . any body that. ccme& m hir H'a 
C. Not a DuAz* Coach of appeanf 

f. . ^ stand ng proof f 
crescent at cru ccrna< F . <z Z. aburer. 



incidentally bespattering the passers-by with white- 
wash from his huge brush. Chief amongst these 
is the Duke of Chandos, who vainly strives to 
protect himself with his hat. Ascending the 
ladder is Lord Burlington, who carries up more 
whitening for the beautifying of his own gate and 
the defilement of his neighbours' clothes. Over 
the gate Hogarth has sarcastically inscribed the 
solitary word "TASTE." The double distribution 
of flattery and satire is an excellent pictorial 
burlesque of the Epistle to Lord Burlington, 
and who can say that it was not richly deserved ? 
At any rate, stroke and counterstroke were fierce 
and unhesitating in those days, and, although 
Pope's and his patrons' influence was sufficient to 
get Hogarth's witty plate suppressed, it is a tribute 
to the wholesome respect which the poet had for 
the artist, that, pugnacious and irrepressible as his 
pen generally was, Pope never ventured to make 
any written retaliation upon the libeller. 

It should be mentioned that this was not the 
first occasion upon which Hogarth had attacked the 
charlatanry of Kent. In the first plate published 
on his own account, in 1724 " Masquerades and 


Operas " he had included him in his ridicule of 
what Mr. Dobson calls "foreign favourites and 
dubious exotics." In that plate, also, he had 
ridiculed "Burlington Gate," and, curiously 
prompted by the spirit of prophecy, had labelled 
it " Accademy (sic) of Arts 1 " He had also, in 
the following year, burlesqued Kent's scandalous 
altarpiece at St. Clement Danes, which had lately 
been taken down in response to the outcry against 
its sacrilegious impudence. 

By the kindness of the publisher of The Builder, 
I am enabled to reproduce a wood engraving of 
Burlington Gate as it actually was, which appeared 
in that journal on October 28, 1854 Comparing 
this with the cartoon, it will be seen that Hogarth 
did not scruple to heighten the effect of his satire 
by depriving Lord Burlington's edifice of such 
merits as it undoubtedly possessed. 

So much for Hogarth in his polemic with Pope. 
We will now turn for a moment to Hogarth and 
his quarrel with Wilkes and Churchill, in which we 
shall find him working over an old plate as in the 
case of " Enthusiasm Delineated," but with a very 
different object in view. Here he adopts a method 


of retaliation which, as we shall learn from later 
chapters of this book, had become already customary 
amongst the producers of political broadsides in 
the seventeenth century. Hitherto Hogarth had 
kept clear of politics, but now, in his sixty-fifth 
year, he threw himself into the fray. John Wilkes 
had started a paper called The No?*th Briton in 
opposition to The Briton, the organ of the Tory 
party of which Lord Bute was the leader. Hogarth 
had long enjoyed Bute's favour. He had also 
until now been on friendly terms with Wilkes and 
his henchman Charles Churchill, the poet. On 
September 7, 1762, taking sides with his patron, 
he published The Times (Plate I.). This so enraged 
Wilkes that he retaliated on the Saturday following, 
in the seventeenth number of The North Briton, 
with a violent attack on Hogarth both as man and 
artist. In the May following Hogarth retorted 
by publishing a portrait of John Wilkes which, 
professing to be a likeness, cleverly exhibited his 
most repulsive characteristics. Wilkes being now 
on his trial for libel, Churchill came to the rescue 
with his savage and slashing Epistle to William 
Hogarth. This was published on August 1. 



With a promptitude astonishing in those days of 
tardy copper-plate engraving, Hogarth, by a clever 
expedient, retaliated within a month with his 
exceedingly venomous print of "The Bruiser." The 
plate from which this was printed had already done 
duty as a portrait of Hogarth himself with his dog 
Trump, engraved from the well-known painting 
now in the National Gallery. 

Pressed for time, in ill-health, and apprehensive 
lest the public might attribute delay in replying to 
inability to do so, he took the old plate, burnished 
out his own portrait, and substituted in its place 
the head of a bear, with torn and soiled clerical 
bands about its neck, ruffles on its wrists, and 
clasping against its chest a foaming pot of beer, 
in allusion to the personal habits of the poet and 
ci-devant parson. With his left paw the beast 
clasps a huge club, the knots of which are labelled 
"Lye 1," "Lye 2," referring to the falsities of 
The North Briton. There are other minor altera- 
tions which may be seen at a glance. The whole 
(once the Rev d . ! ) In the character of a RUSSIAN 
HERCULES, regaling himself after having killed 


the MONSTER CARICATURE, that so sorely gall'd 
his virtuous friend, the Heaven-born Wilkes." 
The plate thus altered is to be found in five states, 
particulars of which may be found on p. 286 of 
Mr. Austin Dobson's William Hogarth, 1891. 
That here reproduced is from a copy of the last 
state engraved by Dent for John Ireland. 1 It is 
only in the last two states that the clever little 
engraving in front of the palette is to be found. 

So far we have dealt with work done by Hogarth 
in his individual capacity. Let us now turn to such 
of his collaborative work as suffered cancellation. 

In dealing with the series of suppressed Quixote 
plates we shall be brought into touch with two not 
uninteresting and accessory episodes in the artist's 
career. In the first of these Hogarth made a 
great success, where a rival artist had made a 
signal failure. In the second, by way of righting 
the balance of things, fate ordained it that this 
same artist should badly best Hogarth, and that in 
a manner peculiarly galling to the latter's vanity. 

Hogarth's father-in-law was Sir James Thornhill, 

1 In copying, the design, as will be seen, has been turned from left 
to right. 


whose drawing academy in Covent Garden had 
not proved as valuable an institution as had been 
anticipated. Johan Van der Banck, the rival 
artist above alluded to, had been one of Sir 
James's pupils. By heading a secession and 
establishing a rival school he had undoubtedly 
largely contributed to the failure of his master's 
venture. However, in due time, his school too 
proved to be lacking in the elements of success, 
and came to an untimely end. 

On Sir James's death the "neglected apparatus" 
of his father-in-law passed into Hogarth's hands, 
and he set to work to establish the academy on a 
different footing. The result was that it became 
a successful educational centre, which only ceased to 
exist many years afterwards on the establishment 
of the Royal Academy. A picture by Hogarth of 
the interior of the school with the students drawing 
from life is to be seen on the staircase leading to 
the Diploma Gallery at Burlington House. 

In this case Hogarth had the laugh on his side. 
In the other, which is immediately relevant to our 
subject, the laugh was with Van der Banck. 

In 1738 Lord Carteret's Spanish edition of Don 



Quixote was published. For this Hogarth had 
been commissioned to design a series of illustra- 
tions. Eight of these were executed, but, on 
being submitted to Lord Carteret, did not meet 
with his approval. The commission was con- 
sequently transferred to Job an van der Banck, 
who thus succeeded in revenging himself for his 
former failure, and at the same time unconsciously 
provided us with matter for consideration in these 
papers. His sixty- eight designs were engraved by 
Van der Gucht and republished in the English 
edition of 1756, of which Charles Jarvis was the 
translator. Of Hogarth's unsuccessful venture 
John Ireland writes with some indignation, "As 
they are etched in a bold and masterly style, I 
suppose the noble peer did not think them pretty 
enough to embellish his volume and therefore laid 
them aside for Vandergucht's engravings from 
Vanderbank's designs." It is a slight satisfaction 
to know that Hogarth's completed etchings were 
paid for ! 

One curious fact about Jarvis's edition demands 
our attention. The plate representing the Don's 
first sally in quest of adventure is without any 



signature, but the " style of the etching and the 
air of the figures " indisputably determine for us 
the fact that it is from the pencil and burin of 
Hogarth, so that it is open to any one who has 
access to this edition to judge for themselves 
of the justice of Ireland's strictures upon Lord 

For those who have not access to Jar vis's 
edition it may be mentioned that a copy engraved 
by J. Mills appears in Ireland's Hogarth Illustrated 
and in the Anecdotes of William Hogarth, published 
by Nichols in 1833. Of Hogarth's eight designs 
we are therefore left with only seven, which were 
"suppressed." Of these six were published from 
Hogarth's own plates in Baldwin, Cradock and 
Joy's splendid collection of the Works in 1822 ; 
whilst previously, in 1798, John Ireland had 
published small copies of them together with an 
unfinished design of "The Innkeeper" in his 
possession, engraved by J. Mills. These plates 
were used over again in the Anecdotes of 1833 
with altered lettering and the etchings considerably 

The accompanying reproductions are, save for 




No. I., not made from any of the foregoing, but 
from the early states of the plates, never before 
published, to be found in the British Museum. 
Thus they will prove not only of interest to the 
casual reader but also valuable, for purposes of 
comparison, to the possessors of any of the three 
editions of Hogarth's Works mentioned above. 
The full descriptions of the plates may be found in 
Ireland and Nichols, but for the convenience of the 
reader I append a short commentary. 

No. I. The Innkeeper is from an unfinished 
etching and is of particular interest. By some its 
authenticity is doubted, but John Ireland believed 
in it, and I, for one, see no reason to call his 
judgment into question, more particularly as this 
figure bears a more than chance resemblance to 
that of "The Innkeeper" in the undoubted Hogarth 
referred to above published in Jar vis's edition. 
In the Van der Banck plate, which represents the 
knighting of the Don by the Innkeeper, it is also 
evident that Hogarth's rival has done him the 
compliment of adopting his model. 

No. II. The Funeral of Chrysostom, Marcella 
vindicating herself. This scene was also taken 



by Van der Banck for illustration, and a com- 
parison of the two plates is not favourable to 

No. III. The Innkeepers Wife and Daughter 
taking care of the Don after he had been beaten. 
"Much superior to the same scene designed by 
Van der Banck." 

No. IV. Don Quixote seizes the Barbers Basin 
for Mambrinos Helmet. On the whole inferior to 
Van der Banck's. The barb of the Don's weapon 
is different from that in the Hogarth design pub- 
lished by Jarvis. The stirrups and saddling of the 
horse too are different. These points have not 
been referred to before, but I mention them by 
way of argument against the authenticity of the 
Jarvis plate. As I have said before, personally I 
have no doubt that it is from Hogarth's burin. 

No. V. Don Quixote releases the Galley Slaves. 
Here the Don is found wearing the barber's basin 
as his helmet. By a not unusual oversight it will 
be noticed Hogarth has made his figures left- 
handed, forgetful of the reversing process due to 
printing from a plate. A superior design to that 
of Van der Banck, who, as Ireland says, " has 




given to two or three of the thieves the counten- 
ances of apostles." 

No. VI. The First Interview of the Valorous 
Knight of La Mancha with the Unfortunate Knight 
of the Rock. Distinctly superior to Van der Banck. 

No. VII. The Curate and Barber disguising 
themselves to convey Don Quixote home. An ex- 
cellent representation of the curate assuming the 
dress of a distressed virgin who, by his tale of 
having been wronged by a naughty knight, hopes 
to induce the Don to return to his home. 

Whilst on the subject of Don Quixote it may 
be mentioned that, much earlier in his career, 
Hogarth had designed and engraved a plate deal- 
ing with " Sancho's feast," but this must not be 
in any way identified or confused with the series 
begun for Lord Carteret, although Ireland groups 
them all together. 

So much for Hogarth's suppressed illustrations, 
and it is, it must be confessed, something of a 
relief to turn again from his cognate art to that 
which is individual and typical. For we do not 
much value Hogarth as an illustrator. In this 
character he rarely does more than repeat for us 





in another medium the obvious matters already 
dealt with in the letterpress. " Illustration," as 
Mr. Laurence Housman has well said, "should 
be something in the nature of a brilliant com- 
mentary throwing out new light upon the subject, 
an exquisite parenthesis of things better said in 
this medium than could be said in any other : in a 
word, the result of another creative faculty at 
work on the same theme." And this in no way 
describes Hogarth's work as an illustrator. It is 
as a great original painter working out consum- 
mately the homeliest of morals that he appeals to 
us. Those morals which, to quote Thackeray, are 
" as easy as Goody Twoshoes," the moral of 
"Tommy was a naughty boy and the master 
flogged him, and Jacky was a good boy and had 
plum-cake." For it is in "Marriage a la Mode," 
"A Rake's Progress," "Industry and Idleness," 
that he succeeds inimitably, carrying out the 
motto beneath " Time Smoking a Picture " : 

" To Nature and your Self appeal 
Nor learn of others what to feel." 

But this only in passing, for our subject 
debars us from lingering over Hogarth's best. 



From the nature of our theme we are confined to 
the examination in the majority of cases of that 
which verges upon failure either from artistic or 
social considerations. 




IN the present chapter I propose to deal with 
three masterly drawings prepared for the publica- 
tions of Messrs. Bradbury and Evans (the pre- 
decessors of Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew) which 
were suppressed for various reasons. Two of 
them are drawings by Charles Keene done for 
Punch, which were never even "brought to the 
block." The third is by Frederick Sandys, 
designed for Once a Week, and actually engraved, 
but cancelled before publication for reasons which 
shall appear. 

For leave to reproduce the first one of the 
rare cartoons (in this case a double -page one) 
drawn by Keene for Punch I am indebted to 



the generosity of Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew, 
to whom the original drawing now belongs. For 
years it has hung amongst other well-nigh price- 
less treasures in the dining hall in Bouverie Street, 
Whitefriars, and, until reproduced by me in the 
Pall Mall Magazine in 1899, was only known 
to the privileged few whose good fortune it has 
been to penetrate into that Temple of the Comic 
Muse. It is therefore with the greater satis- 
faction that it is here reproduced for the delight 
of that surely increasing public which recognises 
in Charles Keene the greatest master of pen-and- 
ink drawing that England has produced. But 
this is not the place to linger over the qualities 
of artists. At the same time we cannot but 
congratulate ourselves that, by good fortune, our 
chosen subject brings us into contact not only 
with work to which adventitious interest attaches, 
but also with artistic work evidencing a technical 
mastery hard indeed to surpass. 

The only public mention before the year 1899 
made of this splendid pen-and-ink drawing is to be 
found on page 60 of Mr. Spielmann's monumental 
work, The History of Punch. There, in his most 


interesting description of The "Punch" Dining 
Hall, it is described as "a masterly drawing, 
2 feet long, by Keene, bought by the late Mr. 
Bradbury at a sale the (unused) cartoon of 
Disraeli leading the principal financiers of the day 
in hats and frock-coats across the Red Sea. 
(' Come along, it's getting shallower ! ') " 

Now, since this was written, further inquiries 
have been made upon the subject, and two theories 
present themselves for consideration. The first 
of them in its general outline supports Mr. 
Spielmann's account, and maintains that the 
picture was bought direct from Keene himself by 
the late Mr. Agnew (not Mr. Bradbury), as a 
solatium on account of its not being used, and 
that the reason for suppressing it was the anti- 
Jewish feeling by which it was inspired. 

In support of this view it should be remembered 
that Keene all along refused to accept a fixed 
salary for his Punch work, and was always paid 
by the piece. Considering, too, that the subject 
of the weekly cartoons was (and still is) a matter 
of general discussion at the Wednesday Punch 
dinners, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the 



subject was embarked upon with the authority of 
the editor, and that other counsels only prevailed 
after the drawing had reached the stage at which 
it now appears. 1 This being so, it seems not 
unlikely that a generous employer would feel 
himself in some degree answerable for the futile 
labour to which the artist had been put, and would 
offer to buy the picture as it stood rather than 
that the artist should in any way be prejudiced. 
If this were the case (which does not sound 
improbable) it throws an interesting and edifying 
side-light upon the relations existing between the 
artists and publishers of our great comic paper. 

Against this theory, however, I have the opinion 
of Sir John Tenniel and Mr. Linley Sambourne 
that the drawing was done on Keene's own initia- 
tive by way of frontispiece to one of the Punch 
pocket-books. But this view of the matter I am, 
with submission, not myself inclined to accept, 
and for two reasons. First and foremost, the 
drawing differs in shape from the pocket-book 
folding frontispieces ; and secondly, it was the 

1 Of course Sir John Tenniel was cartoonist in chief, but sometimes 
the cartoon was duplicated, and on very rare occasions Sir John took 
a holiday. 


practice in these yearly productions rather to 
satirise some social folly or fashion of the period 
than to deal with matters political or international. 
In addition to which it does tally in shape with 
the double-page cartoons of Punch itself, and, as a 
matter of fact, Keene's few cartoons were mostly 
done during the years 1875, 1876, and 1877, when 
the matter of the Suez Canal was making a new 
departure in politics a fact which, as will appear, 
has some bearing upon the matter before us. 

So much for the circumstances connected with 
the production and proposed destination of the 
picture. Let us now consider its subject and the 
probable reason of its suppression. 

And, if we take down our volume of collected 
Punch cartoons and turn to those dealing with 
Disraeli, we shall be disinclined to think that it 
was out of any consideration for "Benjamin 
Bombastes" himself that this splendid drawing 
was withheld from publication. But thinly 
disguised contempt is the attitude almost in- 
variably maintained towards him, whilst but 
thinly disguised personal admiration for his great 
rival discounts even the bitterest political taunts 


flung at that devoted head. No ! I am inclined 
to think that events at this time, to which this 
cartoon referred, were wringing unwilling approba- 
tion even from "The Asiatic Mystery's" most 
bitter enemies, and that Bouverie Street could 
not but acknowledge that here at least "Ben- 
Dizzy " deserved well of his country. For surely 
the cartoon has reference to nothing less than 
that crowning act of wisdom, the purchase of 
nearly half the shares in the Suez Canal for four 
millions sterling. Here we have Disraeli with 
his umbrella pointing the way, not across the Red 
Sea as Mr. Spielmann imagines, but up the Canal 
towards the Red Sea. He calls out, "Don't be 
afraid 1 it's getting shallower," thus possibly refer- 
ring to the original notion (afterwards disproved) 
that the level of the Mediterranean was 30 feet 
below that of the Red Sea. On the right-hand, 
and Egyptian, side of the water, if we look 
carefully, we discover the shadowy outline of the 
Sphinx and the Pyramids, which latter rise dimly 
to the margin of the drawing. On the bank 
indistinct forms of the Liberal " Opposition " wave 
their arms, hurl stones and shout "Yah" at the 


wading financiers. Such was the hardly con- 
gratulatory attitude assumed towards this masterly 
move by Charles Keene. 

But when we turn to the cartoons dealing with 
this subject by Sir John Tenniel, 1 which did 
appear, what do we find ? The first is " Mose in 
Egitto"!!! published on December 11, 1875, to 
which, in the collected cartoons, the following 
note is appended: "Mr. Disraeli extorted the 
admiration of the country by purchasing for 
4,000,000, on behalf of the Government, the 
shares in the Suez Canal held by the Khedive of 
Egypt." The second is entitled "The Lion's 
Share Gare a qui la touche" on February 26, 
1896, to which the note appended runs : " The 
acquisition of the Suez Canal shares was accepted 
by the country as securing the safety of 'The 
Key to India." 1 These, as will be seen, frankly 
recognise the wisdom of the purchase. Hence 
it is not surprising if the feeling against the 
suggestion contained in Keene's cartoon that 
the financiers of the day were being put into a 

1 It may be mentioned as an interesting fact that no engraved 
cartoon after Sir John Tenniel has ever failed to find its place in the 
number for which it was designed. 


ridiculous position by the Conservative Leader 
was strong enough to result in its rejection. Its 
inclusion would have gone far to stultify the effect 
of the congratulatory attitude taken up by Punch's 
chartered cartoonist. At any rate, this view of 
the case appears to be most reasonable, and I give 
it for what it is worth. 

The drawing is a fine example of Keene's 
power of endowing his models with the qualities 
requisite to his design. Not a man of these seven- 
teen financiers suggests a model posing, and yet 
all, for this was Keene's invariable custom, were 
drawn from the life. Not one of them but is 
balanced as though he were wading in water up 
to his knees ; and yet not one of them, we may 
be sure, was' wading against a stream when, prob- 
ably unconsciously, he was forced into the service 
of the artist's pencil. The pose of one and all is 
as inevitable as is the expression on the face of 
each. I would ask all my readers who are seekers 
after consummate draughtsmanship to give more 
particular attention to this beautiful drawing than 
its mere subject would demand, remembering that 
Keene's achievements in black-and-white are un- 


surpassed, and, I am inclined to think, unsurpass- 

We will now turn to the consideration of the 
other suppressed Keene drawing. This, we shall 
find, owed its rejection not to political but 
to social considerations. And it is of peculiar 
interest, not only as showing the scrupulous care 
taken by the then editor of Punch to avoid the 
risk of offending the susceptibilities of his readers, 
but also as an example of the extensive collabora- 
tion which existed between Keene and the late 
Mr. Joseph Crawhall in the supply of " socials " 
to that paper week by week. 

Let us pause for a moment, then, to recall the 
particulars of this remarkable co-operation. Early 
in the 'seventies, Keene, who was often gravelled 
for humorous subjects on which to exercise his 
pencil, was by good fortune introduced to the 
author of Border Notes and Miccty-Maxty, and 
many other droll books of a like character. This 
gentleman, always a lover of things quaint, 
grotesque and jocular, had been for years in the 
habit of jotting down any telling incident that 
came in his way, illustrating it at leisure for his 


own amusement. He was no great artist ; but, 
like Thackeray, his inadequate pencil was so com- 
pelled and inspired by the appreciation of his 
subjects that he was able to set them down 
pictorially in a manner so naive and at the same 
time so intelligent that they are a joy to the 
beholder. These suggestive drawings, by the 
time the introduction had taken place, filled 
several volumes. 

Keene's delight, then, may be well imagined 
when he was given carte blanche to cull the best 
of the subjects for use in Punch. He wrote : 

"I can't tell you how strongly I have felt your rare 
generosity and unselfishness in letting me browse so freely 
in your pastures." 

And again : 

" Many thanks for the loan of the sketch-books. I enjoyed 
them again and again, with renewed chucklings ; but what 
a mouth-watering larder to lay open to a ravenous joke- 
seeker ! " 

Fortunately Mr. Crawhall was as delighted to 
be of service to the great artist as Keene was to 
avail himself of his opportunity. Hence we have 
that delightful partnership of which full particulars 


may be found in my Life and Letters of Charks 
Keene of " Punch" 

It is necessary to say so much for the pur- 
pose of introducing the subject of the second 
of Keene's cancelled drawings. By a great piece 
of good fortune I have in my possession Mr. 
Crawhall's pictorial suggestion for the rejected 
picture itself, presented to me by the artist. I 
reproduce it here alongside Keene's drawing for 
the purpose of comparison. The humour of it is 
certainly rather brutal, and one is not surprised 
to find that the editor considered that it would 
"jar upon feelings." Keene, on the other hand, 
was naturally disgusted at his labour being thrown 
away, and vented his wrath somewhat unreason- 
ably upon the " Philistine editor." 

For the sake of those who would like to gain 
some idea of the personality of the artist's friend 
who acted, as Boswell did to Johnson, in the 
capacity of a "starter of mawkins," it may be 
mentioned that an excellent back view of Mr. 
Crawhall, drawn by Keene, appears in Punch, 
March 11, 1882, over the following delicious 




PATER: "Now, look here, my boy, I can't have these 
late hours. When I was your age my father wouldn't let 
me stay out after dark." 

FILIUS : " Humph ! nice sort o' father you must have had, 
I should say." 

PATER (waxing): "Deuced sight better than you have, 
you young " (Checks himself, and exit.) 

The original of the Punch drawing here repro- 
duced was presented to Mr. Crawhall by Charles 
Keene. This was the latter' s method of repaying 
the former for his unqualified generosity. Mr. 
Crawhall was, however, somewhat embarrassed by 
what he considered to be excessive payment for 
services which he held required no other recom- 
pense than the honour thus conferred on his poor 
drawings. The result was a generous contest 
which resulted in his finally refusing to accept 
them, " For," said he, " you don't know the value 
of your work. The reward is too great, and our 
happy connection must cease if you put me under 
these obligations." 

Keene, nevertheless, always afterwards made a 
colourable excuse to send them when he could 
think of one, although by this time he was well 


aware that he was as great a magician as the 
Old Lady of Threadneedle Street, and could by 
a few strokes of his pen make the back of an 
old envelope rival the value of one of her crisp 

But we must not linger over the cancelled 
drawings of an artist who, had he been as great in 
imagination as he was in originality of method 
and mastery over his pencil, would have been as 
great as the greatest in Art. It is now our 
delightful task to turn to another of the men of 
the 'sixties, whose imagination and sympathy with 
high romance has rarely been surpassed, and 
whose technical mastery, though not the equal of 
his great contemporary, was yet so distinguished 
that, even divorced from his other qualities, it 
would give him a niche in the Temple of Fame. 
Frederick Sandys has but lately left us, and 
how few there are who recognise the greatness 
of his work ! For years it has been a matter of 
astonishment to me that his name was not on 
every tongue. Keene, alive, was practically un- 
known. Keene, dead, occupies an unassailable 
position. Sandys is known and esteemed only by 


the few. The time will come when his pictures 
will be a fashionable craze, and every woodcut 
after him, whether it be in Once a Week, The 
Cornhill, Good Words, London Society, The 
Churchmaris Family Magazine, The Shilling 
Magazine, The Quiver, The Argosy, or what not, 
will be eagerly appropriated by those who wish 
to pass as discerning dilettanti. 

But we must not generalise, for our concern is 
here with one particular design, and enthusiasm 
must not be allowed to run. Done for Once a 
Week, and cut exquisitely on the wood by Swain, 
that with which we have to do was at the last 
moment cancelled by a timidly fastidious editor. 

If we turn to page 672 of vol. iv. of Once 
a Week (new series), 1867, we shall find the 
following set of verses, signed "W.," the origin 
and authorship of which I am now able to make 

public : 


The hour of noonday sleep was o'er, 
And Danae dreamt her dream no more ; 

Yet still its image lingered on her loom ; 
For there in woven colours bright, 
And touched to life by purpling light, 

Smiled the one godhead of the captive's room. > 


She raised her from the Tyrian sheet, 

And clasped her sandals on her feet, 
And lightly drew around her virgin zone ; 

And sighed and knew not why she sighed ; 

And murmured, while her work she plied, 
" The World may leave my love and me alone." 
Thus sang the maiden of the brazen tower, 
And longed, unconscious, for the golden shower. 

" The days and months have grown to years, 

And I have dried my childish tears, 
And half forgotten why they ever ran ; 

My soul is plighted to the sky, 

And we, my wrinkled nurse and I, 
What matter if we see no more of man ? 

She wearies me with omens dire, 

My son foredoomed to kill my sire, 
But sire and son are empty names to me. 

My love ! I only rest awhile, 

To dream the beauty of thy smile. 
And only wake again to picture thee." 
Thus sang the maiden of the brazen tower, 
And longed, unconscious, for the golden shower. 

She ceased : for now began to fade 

The figure of that mighty shade, 
With loins and shoulders meet to sway the world ; 

And awful through the gloom appeared 

His massive locks of hair and beard, 
Like clouds in lurid light of thunder curled. 

Yet, long as twilight glimmered there, 

She gazed upon a vision fair ; 
His brow more beautiful than Parian stone, 

And nestling nearer like a dove, 

Soft on his lips she breathed her love, 


And lit his eyes with lustre of her own. 
Then passion stung the maiden of the tower, 
And fast she panted for the golden shower. 

She stood, with white arm fixed in air, 

And head thrown back, and streaming hair, 
' ' Oh, Lord of Dreams ! " she cried, " dost thou behold ? " 

Then thunderous music shook the cell, 

And, sliding through the rafters, fell 
On Danae's burning breast, three drops of gold. 

Her bosom thrilled but not with pain : 

Faster and brighter flowed the rain, 
And starred with light the chamber of the bride : 

Her cheek sank blushing on her hand, 

Her eyelids drooped, her silken band 
Unloosed itself, and Jove was at her side. 
Black loured the earth around the captive's tower, 
But Heaven embraced her in the golden shower. 

I insert the poem here, as it constitutes the 
only trace in the pages of Once a Week of the 
matter with which we have to deal. 

Before proceeding to detail the circumstances 
connected with the production and final suppres- 
sion of the engraving, which prompted this pass- 
able set of verses, I shall endeavour to correct 
certain statements regarding it which have gained 
currency. In the Artist monograph on " The Art 
of Frederick Sandys/' in 1896, we find a few lines 
only given to the consideration of the wood- 



engraving of " Danae in the Brazen Chamber " ; 
but in these few lines we have one undoubtedly 
incorrect statement, and another which is open 
to the gravest suspicion. The first is that the 
" Danae " was engraved for The Hobby Horse in 
1888 ; the second that it was drawn for Once a 
Week in 1860. 

As regards its engraving, this was done by 
Swain for Once a Week, when the drawing was 
sent in. That it was first published in The Hobby 
Horse as an illustration to an article by the late 
J. M. Gray is another matter altogether. As 
regards the date of its design, 1860 is almost 
certainly some years too early. Indeed, I had 
it from Sandys himself that the probable date of 
the first sketch of the subject was as late as 1865, 
and that it was not till after he had traced it on 
a panel 1 (the figure some two feet high) for a 
never-completed oil-painting, and later had made 
a chalk-drawing of it for a Yorkshire gentleman, 
that he decided to make a drawing on the wood 
at all. This being done, its beauty prompted two 
poems by two of his personal friends, the one 

1 This is now, I believe, in the possession of Mr. Ashby-Sterry. 


given above by Mr. Ward, the other, so far as 
I can gather never published, by Colonel Alfred 
Richards. Now, the fact that Mr. Ward's poem 
did not appear in Once a Week till 1867 lends 
such overwhelming weight to Mr. Sandys's re- 
collection of the matter that we may, I think, 
unhesitatingly reject the date of 1860 given by 
the author of the Artist monograph and adopt a 
date at least five years later. Further evidence, 
too, is to be found in the fact that Mr. Sandys 
continued to draw on the wood certainly as late 
as 1866, and his recollection is clear as to "Danae " 
being his last essay in that medium. 

I have been thus particular to correct this 
matter because it will, I believe, prove of import- 
ance, when Sandys's artistic career comes finally 
to be described, to get his different productions 
into chronological order for a proper understanding 
of his artistic development. 

So far, then, we have arrived, at any rate 
approximately, at the date when Sandys did what 
proved to be not only his one "suppressed" 
drawing, but, as I have said, the very last drawing 
done by him on the wood. 



Let us now consider the circumstances under 
which it was produced for, but in the event sup- 
pressed by, the editor of Once a Week. And that 
this periodical is the poorer for its loss will be 
obvious to all who love beautiful drawing, "splendid 
paganism," and fine wood- engraving. 

Sandys began to draw for Once a Week in 1861, 
his initial effort being that splendid design, " Yet 
once more on the Organ play," which is fit to rank 
with Bethel's " Der Tod als Freund," with which 
there is a certain similarity of sentiment. This 
was followed by eleven drawings within the five 
succeeding years, all breathing the spirit of Diirer, 
and carrying on the effort which Rethel, who had 
only died in 1859, had made to renew the life put 
into wood- engraving by the old German master. 
In either 1865 or 1866 Sandys projected an oil 
picture on the subject of "Danae in the Brazen 
Chamber." He had conceived a new version of 
the Danae legend. Instead of Jove appearing 
to the imprisoned maiden in the form of a golden 
shower, he adopted the belief in Jove as the God 
of Dreams and adapted it to the legend. 1 Danae, 

1 Kal yap r 6vap IK Ai6$ lanv. Homer, Iliad i. 63. 


who has never seen a man, is haunted by the 
appearance of Jove as he has presented himself 
in her sleeping hours. To comfort herself and 
satisfy her passionate longing she has spent her 
days in weaving the image so vouchsafed to her 
in tapestry. For the moment her work is dis- 
carded. The ball of wool with which she has 
been working lies at her feet, and she stands, 
"with white arm fixed in air," calling upon the 
" Lord of Dreams " to come to her in very sooth. 

Frankly sensuous as is the picture, one cannot 
but admit that the theme is treated with all 
necessary restraint. This, however, does not 
appear to have been the opinion of Walford, the 
then editor of Once a Week. He wrote to Sandys 
requiring a modification of the design. This the 
artist flatly refused. The design must appear 
as it was or not at all. In this refusal he was 
gallantly supported by the proprietors of the 
periodical, Messrs. Bradbury and Evans. The 
editor, however, would not give way, and the 
result was a deadlock. The block was actually 
engraved by Mr. Swain, and in his best manner, 
but the editor's will was paramount, and it never 


adorned the pages for which it was intended. It 
was reserved to the Century Guild Hobby Horse, 
in 1888, to rescue it from the oblivion into which 
it had passed. 

I am indebted to Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew 
for permission to reproduce the design. Of it 
Mr. J. M. Gray says in his article on " Frederick 
Sandys and the Woodcut Designers of Thirty 
Years Ago " : " It ranks among the very finest 
of Sandys's woodcuts," and the artist, who had 
not been uniformly satisfied with the engraved 
versions of his work, himself wrote to me : "It 
was engraved for Once a Week. Perfectly cut by 
Swain. From my point of view the best piece 
of woodcutting of our time." 

And all who love this beautiful but fast dis- 
appearing handmaiden of the arts will heartily 
endorse Mr. Sandys's opinion. 



I PROPOSE in this chapter to group together 
certain sporadic suppressions in lithography, etch- 
ing, wood-engraving, and process work. They are 
not sufficiently important each to demand a 
chapter to itself, nor do they fall into any 
particular categories as do the "Dickens," 
"Hogarth," and "Cruikshank" plates. At the 
same time each has an interest of its own, and 
is a footprint upon the byway of art with 
which we are concerned. 

Fortunately for us the first of these cancelled 
illustrations is, at a time when we have but lately 
been celebrating the centenary of Senef elder's 
great invention, lithography, of extraordinary 
interest, for it was one of the earliest book illustra- 
tions produced in England by this method. The 



volume in which it appears (if we are lucky enough 
to possess one of the first three hundred copies 
issued) is the Antiquities of Westminster, with 
two hundred and forty-six engravings by J. T. 

The date of the volume is 1807 a fact which 
would at first sight seem to tell against our claim 
to be dealing with a pioneer English lithograph. 
We must, however, remember that a book of this 
kind took many years to produce, and that the 
publication of the illustrations was, in many cases, 
of necessity years later than their execution. 

Lowndes oddly refers to the lithograph as the 
first "stone-plate" ever attempted, but in this he 
claims for it too great a distinction. To name 
no others, there was, we know, as early as 1803 a 
portfolio containing drawings by West, Fuseli, 
Barry, and Stothard issued as Specimens of 
Poly autography, by which term lithography was 
for a few years described, which contains litho- 
graphs dated 1801 and 1802. 

The subject of the design here reproduced in 
facsimile is the inside of the Painted Chamber 
which was part of the Old Palace of Westminster. 


(From Antiquities of Westminster, 1807.) 


The mural paintings which were discovered at 
the beginning of this century, after the removal 
of the tapestry hangings which are to be seen in 
the lithograph, were, it will scarcely be credited, 
promptly ordered by the authorities of the day 
to be "improved" away by a coat of whitewash 
because of their untidiness ! And this although 
they were known to have been in existence since 
1322, and although there were strong reasons for 
the belief even at that time that they were 
executed as early as the reign of Henry III. 1 
Such an act of vandalism would be inconceivable 
were it not that we have learnt to look upon its 
like as so lamentably common. 

The account of the preparation of the litho- 
graph, and of the stone's untimely fate, is fully set 
forth on pages 49 and 50 of the Antiquities. 
It is too long to quote in this place, but is well 
worth looking up by those who are interested in 
the history of this method. It is sufficient for our 
purpose to say that after three hundred im- 
pressions had been taken off, the stone was laid 
by for the night without care having been taken 
to keep it properly moist. The result was that 


on the application of the ink balls in the morning 
they proved too tenacious, and on their removal 
were found to have torn up portions of the draw- 
ing from the stone. Consequently we have it 
that impressions of this, one of the first English 
lithographs, are exceedingly scarce, and are only 
to be found in the first three hundred copies of 
the book issued. This fact connotes the further 
result that the impressions of the etchings through- 
out the book in their earliest states are to be found 
in the copies containing the lithograph. 

Before quitting this subject it should be stated 
that in " collating " this book we must bear in 
mind a very pretty quarrel which took place 
between the artist and J. S. Hawkins, who was 
largely responsible for the letterpress. As has 
been pointed out, the first 300 copies contained the 
"stone-plate." But in only a very few copies is 
to be found the suppressed title-page bearing the 
name of John Sidney Hawkins, and the dedication 
to George III., signed "The Author." These 
few copies contain the very earliest impressions 
of the plates. In the later copies the dedication 
is signed "John Thomas Smith," and bound up 


in most of these is found a "Vindication" by 
J. T. Smith in answer to "A Correct Statement 
and Vindication of the conduct of John Sidney 
Hawkins, Esq., F.A.S., towards Mr. John Thomas 
Smith, drawn up and published by Mr. Hawkins 
himself." Lond. 1807, 8vo, p. 87. J. T. Smith's 
answer was further replied to in another pamphlet 
by Hawkins dated 1808. 

We will now turn from this specimen of 
lithography to a very remarkable example of the 
sister art of wood-engraving. (Vide Frontispiece.) 

In the April number 1896 of Good Words, I 
dealt with some bibliographical curiosities, one of 
which was the remarkable suppressed title-page 
in my possession here reproduced. My object on 
that occasion was to verify the fact of which I 
felt practically certain, that the book for which it 
was prepared had never come into being, and that 
therefore we had the curious anomaly of an 
elaborately engraved title-page wanting a book. 
Books wanting their engraved title-page are 
unfortunately common enough, owing to the 
barbarism of certain ruthless collectors. But a 
title-page not only wanting a book, but which 



never had one, was as extraordinary as the grin of 
the Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland, which 
was left behind after its author had disappeared. 

"Well! I've often seen a cat without a 
grin," thought Alice, "but a grin without a cat! 
It's the most curious thing I ever saw in all my 

But then Alice had never seen this title-page 
of a book by " Sholto Percy " which was never 
written, and of which Death in London was to 
have been the title. The wood-block is a very 
beautiful one, cut by Mason, no doubt Abraham 
John, who engraved Cruikshank's illustrations to 
Tales of Humour and Gallantry. 

" Sholto Percy " was the pen-name of Joseph 
Clinton Robertson, who, with Thomas Byerley, 
published the Percy Anecdotes, 1821-23. Their 
full pseudonyms were "Sholto and Reuben Percy, 
Brothers of the Benedictine Monastery, Mount 
Benger." The anecdotes were published in forty- 
one parts, at half-a-crown a-piece, before the close 
of the year 1823, and, of these, two hundred and 
sixty thousand copies were sold during the four 
years of issue ! What number subsequent editions 


have run to it is impossible to conjecture. The 
title of the book had its origin from the Percy 
Coffee-House in Rathbone Place, which the 
collaborators frequented. They also compiled 
London, or Interesting Memorials of its Rise, 
Progress, and Present State. 3 vols. 1823. 

In the dedication of this last work to George 
IV. we find facsimile signatures of the two 
"Brothers." That of "Sholto Percy," the author 
of the book which was evidently projected but 
never published, tallies with that on the title-page 
here reproduced. From the fact that Reuben's 
signature is absent we gather that, for some 
reason or other, the collaboration had come to an 
end. At any rate nothing more is heard of the 
partnership, nor indeed was anything else published 
under one or other of these noms-de-plume. And 
although I received various communications from 
strangers upon the subject of the bibliographical 
curiosities dealt with in the Good Words article, 
no light was thrown upon this perplexing title- 
page. Suppressed, therefore, it doubtless was, 
because it had no reason to be anything else, and 
remains a rather pathetic memorial of the gifted 


artist and the author whose projected enterprise 
was perchance cut short by one of the forms of 
the Dread Enemy here portrayed. 

The block is worthy of careful scrutiny. The 
only impression in existence (as I believe it to be) 
and in my possession is beautifully printed on 
India paper. In it we find Bewick's white line 
used with excellent effect. Behind the main panel 
the colossal form of Death is just visible, holding 
in either hand " Death in the Cup " and " Death 
in the Dish." At the lower corners his skeleton 
feet are just visible, fixed on the Arctic and 
Antarctic portions of the Globe. At the top of 
the panel Death drags a wheel off the chariot 
which is making a dash from London to Gretna 
Green. Immediately below this is a nail-studded 
coffin from which hangs a pall inscribed with the 
words "Death in London." This overhangs the 
central group, in which Death spectacled and 
seated on a tombstone at a desk supported by 
human thighs, with a human skull as footstool, 
receives despatches and directs his myrmidons. 
Supporting this central panel two skeletons hurl 
death -dealing darts, whilst below one skeleton 


starves in prison, and another, crowned with straw, 
rages as a maniac. 

On the right-hand border a skeleton highway- 
man, pistol in hand, awaits his victim, ignoring the 
gallows which is seen under the moon in the back- 
ground, and ignorant of the noose already round 
his neck, manipulated by a skeleton hangman in 
the division above. On the left-hand border a 
somewhat cryptic design represents a skeleton 
toper surmounting a skeleton quack physician who 
sucks a cane and, with medicine bottle in hand, 
goes forth on his death-dealing mission. 

At the base Death, in a deluge of wind and 
rain, overturns a sailing boat, and incidentally 
presses down a struggling victim with his foot. 
The whole effect is finely decorative, and far 
surpasses anything else of Seymour's of which I 
have knowledge. 

But we must not linger too long over each item 
of our promiscuous collection of cancelled illustra- 

I shall now bring to your notice a very rare 
coloured plate by Henry Alken, which, though 
not suppressed in the strictest sense, is yet 


sufficiently relevant to the subject to admit of its 
inclusion in these papers. It was undoubtedly 
prepared for a book of which Alken was the 
illustrator, but, for some reason or other, although 
engraved, it was not included among the published 

During the years 1831-39 there appeared in 
The New Sporting Magazine, edited by R. Surtees, 
a series of sporting sketches of which " Mr. John 
Jorrocks" was the hero. These papers were 
collected and published in 1838 under the 
alliterative title of Jorrocks s Jaunts and Jollities* 
illustrated by "Phiz." This volume was brought 
to the notice of Lockhart, who thereupon advised 
Surtees to try his hand at a sporting novel. The 
immediate result was Handley Cross. In 1843 a 
third edition of Jorrocks s Jaunts and Jollities 
appeared, with sixteen coloured plates after Henry 
Alken. The novels in the meantime were being 
issued with illustrations by Leech and "Phiz." 
That the former has at this distance of time lost 
nothing of its popularity (rather, of course, on 
account of the illustrations than for the letterpress, 
which reads poorly enough now) is evidenced by 


the fact that only the other day a copy fetched at 
public auction the remarkable sum of 20. One 
wonders what the bidding would have reached had 
the book been extra-illustrated with the unused 
illustration of which it is here my purpose to treat. 

Now we must be careful, in considering any 
work signed "Alken," to bear in mind the fact 
mentioned by Mr. R. E. Graves in the Dictionary 
of National Biography, that although the fertility 
of Alken's pencil was amazing, the idea of it might 
be fictitiously enhanced if the fact were not grasped 
that he left two or three sons one of whom was 
also named Henry all artists and all sporting 
artists, who have, since their father's time, been 
incessantly painting, lithographing, aquatinting 
and etching for the sporting publishers and for 
private patrons of the turf. 

But the original Henry Alken did his work 
between 1816 and 1831 ; hence it is clear that the 
illustrations to Jorrocks were the work of Henry 
the younger. And this is a point which should be em- 
phasised for the guidance of the bibliomaniac, for 
it is the practice of many second-hand booksellers 
to lump all work by " Alken " under one head, from 


ignorance possibly in some cases I fear from 
unworthy motives. For it is the work of Henry 
Alken, the founder of the line, which is of greatest 
rarity and greatest merit, and to palm off work 
done by a namesake as work done by him is 
plain cheating. We remember the parallel case 
of George Cruikshank, who exposed a certain 
publisher, in a somewhat intemperate pamphlet 
afterwards suppressed, entitled A Popgun fired 
off by George Cruikshank, etc., etc. In that 
case the publisher had been guilty of the more 
than questionable proceeding of advertising certain 
"story-books" as "illustrated by Cruikshank," 
which were in reality the work of George's 
nephew, Percy, who, I fancy, would have been 
the last to concur in what was an undoubted 
attempt to mislead the public. 1 

Let it be clearly understood, then, that the 
plate which we here reproduce was the work of 
Henry Alken the younger. Though of little 
artistic merit, it is yet not unworthy of those 
which were published, and the reason of its 

1 The woodcut of the irascible George suspending the unhappy 
Brooks by the nose from a pair of tongs is reproduced in my little 
book on Cruikshank' s Portraits of Himself. 

(By Henry Alken, the younger.) 


suppression is difficult to fathom. The plate 
should be undoubtedly annexed, on its very rare 
appearance, by him who values his Jorrocks. 
This would make his copy, in the words of the 
second-hand booksellers, a "really desirable" one. 
Our reproduction is not quite the size of the 
original, which exactly tallies in size and shape 
with the published plates. The line of publication 
runs : " London, Published by R. Ackermann at 
his Eclipse Sporting Gallery, 191 Regent St. 
1843." The method employed in its production 
is a mixture of etching and aquatinting, and this 
impression has been coloured by hand with the 
brilliant tints which appealed to our sporting 
forebears. There need be no complaint about its 
lowness of tone. It would put to the blush the 
most versi-coloured of kaleidoscopes ! To parody 
Dr. Johnson's animadversion upon a certain ode, 
it would be just from the strict artistic standpoint 
to say, "Bolder colour and more timorous meaning, 
I think, were rarely brought together." 

So much for some unattached suppressions of 
the first half of the century. We will conclude 



this chapter with certain cancelled plates of only 

To those who have not yet grasped the fact 
(cried aloud in the wilderness by Mr. Kipling) 
that our age is as romantic as any other if we 
only know how to regard matters, the fact will 
probably come as something of a surprise that the 
last decade of the nineteenth century has as surely 
its crop of " suppressed plates," as have those ages 
which were, we choose to flatter ourselves, more 
brutal than our own. Less unmannerly in some 
respects doubtless we tend to become, and that 
perhaps is the very reason (paradoxical though it 
may sound) why we do not have to search in 
vain for "modern instances." For now that Mrs. 
Grundy is sharper-eyed than she was (notwith- 
standing her age), and the libel laws are more 
closely knit by precedents, slips which would have 
been treated as passing peccadilloes by our less 
squeamish forebears rise to the dignity of " copy " 
for the pressman, and form staple conversation for 
the insatiate tea-table. 

And when we mention the late most five-o'clock 
and kind-hearted of artists, Mr. du Maurier, and 


the still living most dainty limner of hoops and 
patches, Mr. Hugh Thomson, as the providers 
of century-end "cancelled illustrations," we may 
be sure that the'details will not be very scandalous, 
nor the outrages very shocking. 

Not but that I was forced to go somewhat warily 
when originally recording the famous incident of 
du Maurier and the peccant illustration of the 
"Two Apprentices "an Trilby, for was I not thereby 
involving myself with another, and greater, artist 
(very much alive indeed ! ), whose pen was only not 
mightier than his pencil because the latter was 
unsurpassable, but who might in turn pillory me 
in his gallery of artfully constructed Enemies ? 

It was indeed a topsy-turvy world which found 
the "Butterfly," which is popularly supposed to 
end its life wriggling upon the pin of the " soaring 
human boy," revenging itself upon humanity with 
epigrams that " stick for ever." 

Sad to relate, Whistler could never be brought 
to see du Manner's rather caustic "retaliation," 
particulars of which are given below, in its proper 
proportions. Indeed, when I asked him to allow 
me to reproduce, as a pictorial curiosity, the 


suppressed print of the " Two Apprentices," which 
only the owners of Trilby ', as it appeared in 
serial form, are now destined to possess, he in- 
formed me in the politest manner possible that 
my doing so would involve me in an expen- 
sive and uncomfortable correspondence with his 
solicitors. And what could not be done then 
cannot be done now, for reasons into which I need 
not enter. Nevertheless, to treat seriously a hyper- 
bolical and exaggerated caricature as anything more 
than a legitimate response to a not altogether 
kindly sarcasm on the part of Mr. Whistler him- 
self, appears to me now, as it appeared to me 
then, well-nigh incredible. No one looked upon 
"Joe Sibley" as a true likeness, either pictorially or 
verbally. It was written and read as a joke, part 
true, but mostly false, and so would have stood 
had it not been given undue importance by the 
correspondence in the Pall Mall Gazette. As a 
result, in book form "Joe Sibley" is wanting in 
that delightful gallery which contains "Durier," 
Pygmalion to Trilby's Galatea a Galatea whose 
marble heart would never beat for him; "Vincent," 
the great American oculist, " whose daughters are 


so beautiful and accomplished that they spend 
their autumn holiday in refusing the matrimonial 
offers of the British aristocracy " ; " The Greek," 
who was christened Poluphoisboiospaleapologos 
Petrilopetrolicoconose "because his real name 
was thought much too long " ; " Carnegie," 
who "is now only a rural dean, and speaks the 
worst French I know, and speaks it wherever 
and whenever he can " ; " Antony, the Swiss " 
(substituted for "Joe Sibley"); "Lorrimer," who 
was so thoroughgoing in his worship of the 
immortals, Veronese, Tintoret and Co., and was 
"so persistent in voicing it, that he made them 
quite unpopular in the Place St. Anatole des 
Arts " ; not to speak of " Dodor " and " 1'Zouzou," 
who were distinguished for being " les plus mauvais 
garniments of their respective regiments," and the 
rest of Trilby's delightful adorers. Why, it seems 
to me that to have obtained a niche in that pillory 
(forgive the mixing of metaphors), and to see the 
fun of a little exaggerated banter, and perchance 
learn a little lesson from it, would not be so 
very bad a fate after all. But I suppose it all 
depends on the point of view. 


As I say, I have by me a delightfully ironic 
missive from the late president of the Society of the 
Butterfly himself, acknowledging " the exceedingly 
amiable and flattering form of the playful request " 
contained in my letter, with a hint at the end that 
lawyers might look upon any reproduction of the 
forbidden matter as less than tolerable. 

Alas ! that it is so, and all I can do is to refer 
my readers to the columns of the Pall Mall 
Gazette for May 15 and 25, 1894, in which 
appeared Whistler's two letters, and quote here 
the interview with du Maurier upon the matter. 
They form a curious commentary upon the 
" Gentle Art of Losing Friends." 

Extract from Pall Mall Gazette, May 19, 1894. 1 



Mr. George du Maurier, " hidden in Hampstead " as Mr. 
Whistler put it in his letter to us a day or two ago, was 
discovered by a Pall Mall Gazette reporter without the aid 
of any exploring party yesterday, when that representative 
called to see what the famous Punch artist had to say in 
reply to Mr. Whistler. Mr. du Maurier was not disposed 
at first to vouchsafe any answer. " If a bargee insults one 

1 By kind permission of the Proprietor. 


in the street," he said, " one can only pass on. One cannot 
stop and argue it out." But on second thoughts Mr. du 
Maurier added a few words. "I should," he said, "have 
avoided all reference to Mr. Whistler, or anything which 
could have been construed into reference to him, if I had 
imagined it would have pained him. I should have written 
privately to him to say so, if his letter had been less violent 
and less brutal. Certainly, in the character of Sibley, in 
my serial story Trilby I have drawn certain lines with Mr. 
Whistler in my mind. I thought that the reference to 
those matters would have recalled some of the good times 
we used to have in Paris in the old days. I thought that 
both with Mr. Whistler and with other acquaintances I 
have similarly treated, pleasurable recollections would have 
been awakened. But he has taken the matter so terribly 
seriously. It is so unlike him. 

" You know of no reason why he should not have taken 
it all good-naturedly?" "No. I thought it might have 
drawn from him something funny, something droll, to which 
I could have replied in kind. But, of course, a letter like 
his puts a reply out of the question. I think he must have 
been quite out of sorts to have allowed himself to get so 
angered." " I believe Mr. Whistler has himself said things 
which the objects of them have not particularly relished ! " 
" Why, he has gone about all his life in England making 
unkind remarks and publishing them. Here is a little book 
of his, TJie Gentle Art of making Enemies, and I am one of 
his victims. It is not very terrible what he says. It is 
rather droll. Listen ! ' Mr. du Maurier and Mr. Wilde, 
happening to meet in the rooms where Mr. Whistler was 


holding his first exhibition of Venice jottings, the latter 
brought the two face to face, and, taking each by the arm, 
inquired, " I say, which one of you two invented the other, 
eh ? " The obvious retort to that on my part would have 
been that if he did not take care I would invent him, but 
he had slipped away before either of us could get a word 
out. This is really too small a matter to refer to ; but the 
explanation of this bit of drollery of Mr. Whistler's is that 
it suggested that I was unknown until I began to draw 
Postlethwaite, the aesthetic character, out of whom I got 
some fun. Postlethwaite was said to be Mr. Oscar Wilde, 
but the character was founded, not on one person at all, 
but a whole school. As a matter of fact, I had been drawing 
for Punch twenty years before the invention of Postlethwaite. 
However, that was Mr. Whistler's little joke, and one would 
have thought that if he made jokes about me, he might 
have expected me to play the same game upon him without 
anticipating that I should hurt his feelings. Then Mr. 
Whistler implies that I am a foul friend, stating that I 
have thought a foul friend a finer fellow than an open enemy. 
I am neither his friend nor his enemy. I am a great admirer 
of his genius and his wit ; but I cannot say that I could call 
myself his friend for thirty years past. We were intimate in 
the old days, but that is all. No, his whole letter is incom- 
prehensible to me. Of course, he has been embittered 
through life, by reason of his genius not being recognised at 
its full value by the wide public, and it certainly has not. 
This circumstance, and possibly illness, may account for the 
leave he has taken of good manners. He talks of my pent- 
up envy and malice. I must ask you to believe that I am not 


such a beast as that. I have no occasion either for malice 
or for envy, and, as I say, I should never have written even 
what I have, had I imagined it would give Mr. Whistler pain." 
" Do you contemplate deleting the character of Sibley 
when you publish in volume form ? " " If I had a word or 
sign of regret from Mr. Whistler for the savage things he 
says in his letter I might consider that. I did what I did in 
a playful spirit of retaliation for this little gibe about me in 
his book. A man so sensitive as Mr. Whistler now seems to 
be should beware how he goes about joking of others. I 
had no idea of taking any notice of Mr. Whistler's letter, 
but since you have come and asked me I say that if 1 had 
known it would have given pain and brought such a torrent 
of abuse upon me, I should have denied myself the little 
luxury of the playful retaliation in which I indulged." 1 

Let me then here put it on record that Trilby 
in book form is not only innocent of "Joe Sibley" 
and the "cut" of the "Two Apprentices" but is in 
other respects far inferior to its serial issue. The 
illustrations have been greatly reduced, and in the 
process have lost much of their charm. There 
was, however, a large-paper edition of the novel 
published in 1895, containing the same number of 

1 After reading Mr. Menpes's Whistler as I knew Him, one discovers 
that extraordinary phenomenon, a man who would rather destroy a 
friendship by what he considered a brilliant phrase than sacrifice the 
brilliant phrase and preserve the friendship. It is not wonderful that 
all Whistler's friends did not prove so complaisant and generous as 
Mr. Menpes. 



illustrations as the small - paper, together with 
"facsimiles of the pencil studies." This is the 
most desirable edition outside Harpers. The 
ideal form is, of course, the serial issue extracted 
from the Magazine and bound up, "Joe Sibley," 
the suppressed " cut " and all. 

This, then, is all that must be said about the 
" suppressed plate," which is so rigidly put under 
hatches that it must not even be paraded, on this 
occasion only, with its fellows. "When the 
sleeper wakes," perchance, and copyright is out, a 
cheap edition of this present volume, with the 
suppressed block inserted, will be published, and 
our children's children will marvel. 1 

The whole episode is a nice commentary upon 
Mr. George Meredith's distinction between Irony 
and Humour. " If," says he, " instead of falling 
foul of the ridiculous person with a satiric rod, to 
make him writhe and shriek aloud, you prefer to 
sting him under a semi-caress, by which he shall in 
his anguish be rendered dubious whether indeed 
anything has hurt him, you are an engine of 

1 The curious should refer to a delightful open Letter entitled 
Trilby from Mr. Whistler's pen, which appeared in the initial number 
of Mr. Harry Furniss's late lamented Lika Joko. 


Irony." But " if you laugh all round him, tumble 
him, roll him about, deal him a smack, and drop a 
tear on him, own his likeness to you and yours to 
your neighbour, spare him as little as you shun 
him, pity him as much as you expose, it is a spirit 
of Humour that is moving you." 

In conclusion, it may be interesting to record 
the fact that no communication passed between 
du Maurier and Whistler upon the subject, other 
than that which appeared in print. 

So much for the episode of the suppressed 
Trilby illustration, which, as we have seen, was 
complicated by personal considerations. 

Let us now turn our attention for a moment 
to a charming little tailpiece which has fallen a 
victim, not to the susceptibilities of an individual, 
but to an undue consideration for the feelings of 
that most living of Tom Morton's creations, Mrs. 
Grundy. It is to be found in the first edition of 
the immortal Vicar of Wakefield as pictured by 
Mr. Hugh Thomson. And in entering our 
protest against the deference which has in this 
instance been shown ito prudishness, we must at 
the same time admiringly recognise the spirit by 



which the action has been prompted. The 
"young person" no doubt succeeds on occasion 
in rendering us a little ridiculous. At the same 
time we must not forget that to her we largely 

owe our immunity from what would often shock 
even the moral olfactories of her elders. 

Surely, however, the tender morals which could 
bear to read of ThornhuTs attempted seduction of 
Olivia could not logically find offence in the 


charming little conceit, which by its suppression 
has rendered a first edition of the Vicar, as illus- 
trated by Mr. Hugh Thomson, an allurement to 
the modern Maecenas. 

Unlike Coaching Days and Coaching Ways, 
illustrated by the same artist, after the first edition 
of which certain drawings also disappeared, but 
without others being substituted in the later 
editions, the first edition of the Thomson Vicar of 
Wakefield, dated 1890, which was published both 
on small and large paper, contains the same 
number of illustrations as those which succeeded 
it. This, of course, is because in this instance 
the type was not reset, and so it was obligatory 
to substitute an illustration for that which was 

The tailpiece, here reproduced by the kind per- 
mission of Mr. Thomson and Messrs. Macmillan, 
only appears on page 95 of the issues of 1890. 

After that date we have a drawing which, 
though a pretty enough little picture of Lady 
Blarney and Miss Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia 
Skeggs (I love, like the Vicar himself, to give the 
whole name), is to my mind far inferior to that 


which seems to have given offence to some extra- 
ordinarily constructed purists. 

Mr. Austin Dobson, to whom we are indebted 
for the enlightening Prefatory account, in this 
volume, of the more important illustrated editions 
of the Vicar, tells me that he has an impression 
that the immediate cause of the disappearance 
of the peccant tailpiece was a certain objection 
raised by a reviewer in the Spectator. In justice, 
however, to that organ I must at once put it on 
record that I can find no trace of its having so 
demeaned itself. 

As a matter of fact I have reason to believe 
that suggestions were made by certain persons who 
arrogate to themselves a sort of private proprietor- 
ship in the " fine old English novel " and the " fine 
old English caricature " that the little tailpiece was 
in rather bad taste, and that the artist, rather than 
allow the slightest grounds for such an imputation 
to exist, hastened to remove the offender, and sub- 
stituted one that was irreproachable. Personally 
I grieve to think that there should be any one in 
existence with a moral digestion so dyspeptic as 
to discover the least coarseness or ill-flavour in 


this dainty little fancy, And though the artist, 
we may be sure, has not troubled himself unduly 
about the insinuation, I cannot but feel indignant 
that even a hint of indecorousness should be made 
against one who, above all others, has kept his 
pencil free from any taint of unworthiness. How- 
ever, it is an ill wind that blows nobody any good, 
and we are fain to congratulate ourselves upon 
thus being enabled to enrol Mr. Hugh Thomson 
in a brotherhood which he certainly will not 

Passing allusion has been made above to 
certain illustrations which also disappeared from 
Mr. Outram Tristram's very readable book 
Coaching Days and Coaching Ways, illustrated by 
Mr. Hugh Thomson and Mr. Herbert Railton, 
after the first edition of that very charming volume 
was exhausted. It had been my intention to re- 
produce these cancelled drawings here, but I have 
since come to the conclusion that it would be 
little short of an outrage to perpetuate what 
would be cruelly unrepresentative of Mr. Hugh 
Thomson's work. So far as the artist himself 
is concerned no obstacle is raised, for he writes 


to me in the most generous way, "'Calling 
for the Squire's Mailbag ' was withdrawn for the 
same reason as ' Wild Darrell ' (viz. because it was 
not considered sufficiently good). / should like to 
withdraw scores of other drawings. However, one 
cannot help oneself. It is not very pleasant to 
have these reproduced again, but I quite under- 
stand the motive of your book, and should be very 
churlish indeed to put any obstacle in your way/' 
This seems to me so nobly altruistic an attitude 
that I feel I should be lacking in mannerliness 
were I to take advantage of it. 

It will be enough merely to draw attention 
to facts which will be of interest to those who 
possess one or other of the editions of this book. 

First and foremost then, take down your copy 
and note whether the number of the illustrations is 
216 or 219. Happy as you are if you possess the 
latter, twice happy will you be if the former be 
yours, for in this case you will be the owner, 
not only of a first edition, not only of an edition 
containing the cancelled illustrations, but also of 
the edition from which the best idea of the beauty 
of the original drawings may be got. And for this 


reason, that in all but this, the 1888 edition, the 
reproductions have been greatly reduced in size. 
Of course we are here concerned with the can- 
celled pictures, " Wild Darrell " on page 43 and 
"Calling for the Squire's Mailbag " on page 311, 
but we must remember that their chief value lies 
in their being the guarantees of our having an 
editio princeps. So we have it that in this instance 
as in the case of Trilby the earliest issues have the 
double charm of satisfying at the same time our 
taste for the beautiful and our appetite for the 
curious. Unlike the case of Trilby, however, we 
have here no romantic circumstances such as 
appeal to the true bibliomaniac. The cancellation 
is merely the result of a laudable determination on 
the part of the artist and his publisher to eliminate 
such illustrations as they do not consider altogether 
exemplary. Incidentally of course their action 
enhances, in the eyes of the bibliomaniac, the value 
of those copies which they rightly consider marred 
by their inclusion. But this is no business of 
theirs. They are not concerned with diseased 
humanity but with the poor sane public for whom 
they cater. 



The above remarks apply of course to many 
minor suppressions of the same kind. There is, 
to take one example, the well-known case of 
Curmer's 1838 edition of Paul et Virginie and 
La Chaumicre Indienne superbly illustrated by 
Meissonier, Tony Johannot, Huet, and others. 
This book is a standing compliment to British 
wood-engraving of the day, for, though published 
in Paris by a French publisher, by far the larger 
number of the blocks were entrusted to Samuel 
Williams, Orrin Smith, and other British hands. 
In the earliest issue appears on page 418 the 
wood-engraving of "La Bonne Femme." En- 
graved by Lavoignat after Meissonier it was 
suppressed in later issues probably because of its 
ugliness, whether the fault of artist or engraver 
I know not. At any rate the engraver was not 
one of the British contingent. 



WHEN the iconography of Edward FitzGerald's 
Rub a iy at of Omar Khayyam comes to be com- 
piled, there will be one item which will be found 
to be well-nigh unattainable by the enthusiastic 
collector. That item is not unnaturally dismissed 
in a very few words by Colonel W. F. Prideaux 
in his " Notes for a Bibliography of Edward Fitz- 
Gerald." He is dealing with the third edition, 
published by Quaritch in the year 1872. "It 
may be added," he writes, "that a weird frontis- 
piece to this edition was designed and etched by 
Mr. Edwin Edwards, the artist friend to whom 
FitzGerald lent his house at the beginning of 
1871, and whose death in 1879 was a source 
of sorrow to him. A few copies of the etching 
were struck off, but it did not meet with the 



approval of FitzGerald, and was consequently 
never used." 

Now, I am inclined to think that this, as I 
believe, the only published reference to an 
interesting rarity, will hardly satisfy the craving 
of the FitzGerald enthusiast. I shall therefore 
give the fullest information on the subject, 
whereby the modern Maecenas will be afforded 
full particulars of what only a few of the cult of 
Omar can ever hope to possess. 

Those who know their Rubaiyat as they 
should will remember that there are several 
allusions made by the philosopher to the amuse- 
ments of his countrymen. 

Take the FitzGerald quatrain : 

" When you and I behind the veil are passed, 
Oh, but the long, long while the world shall last, 

Which of our Coming and Departure heeds 
As the Sea's self should heed a pebble cast." 

Here, in the last line, we have what is probably 
an allusion to the game of " Ducks and Drakes," 
"which," says Mr. Edward Heron- Allen in the 
notes to his admirable translation, "was known to 
the Egyptians and also to the Greeks under the 


name of eVoo-T/>a/ao>to9. It was played with oyster- 
shells. The curious are referred to Minutius Felix 
(A.D. 207), who describes the game in his preface." 
This last is a gentleman with whose name I am 
free to confess I have hitherto been unfamiliar, 
and to whose writings I have no access. I must 
therefore leave the enthusiastic reader to follow 
up the clue for himself. However, with the aid 
of Liddell and Scott, I find myself able to go 
one better than Mr. Heron- Allen, and would refer 
the reader to Archseologus Pollux, the author of 
Onomastikon, whose date is prior to Felix by 
twenty-nine years ! 

Another game which we find Omar Khayyam 
alluding to is that of chequers, which is familiar 
to us in FitzGerald's oft-quoted quatrain : 

" But helpless pieces of the game he plays 
Upon this Chequer-board of Nights and Days ; 

Hither and thither moves, and checks and slays, 
And one by one back in the Closet lays " ; 

altered in the later edition to : 

" Tis all a Chequer-board of Nights and Days, 
Where Destiny with Men for Pieces plays ; 

Hither and thither moves, and mates, and slays 
And one by one back in the Closet lays.'' 


Again we have allusion to what is probably 
some form of the game of tennis in the following: 

" The Ball no question makes of Ayes and Noes 
But Right or Left as strikes the Player goes, 

And He that tossed Thee down into the Field 
He knows about it all HE knows HE knows." 

Other passages might be quoted, but these are 
enough for our purpose, for the form of amuse- 
ment with which we have immediately to concern 
ourselves is rather a toy than a game a toy indeed 
which would seem to have been the forerunner of 
a somewhat elaborate apparatus which, being used 
at first for more frivolous purposes, has now been 
largely adapted to educational ends. 

The Magic Lantern of modern times is generally 
referred back to Athanasius Kircher, who died in 
1680, although, according to some, it was known 
four centuries earlier to Roger Bacon. This may 
be true enough so far as the "projecting lantern" 
is concerned, but it can hardly be doubted that it 
had in the line of its earlier ancestors the Persian 
Fanus i Khiyal or Lantern of Fancy, which 
is used with such effect by the Philosopher of 
Naishapur, and which instigated the design of the 


rare suppressed etching of which I here propose 
to treat with some particularity. 

As literally translated by Mr. Heron- Allen, the 
quatrain referring thereto runs as follows : 

" This vault of heaven, beneath which we stand bewildered, 
We know to be a sort of magic-lantern ; 
Know thou that the sun is the lamp flame and the universe is 

the lamp, 
We are like figures that revolve in it." 

As literally translated by Mr. John Payne it 
runs : " This sphere of the firmament, wherein 
we are amazed, The Chinese lantern I think a 
likeness of it ; The sun the lamp-stand and the 
world the lantern ; We like the figures are that 
in it revolve." 

As metrically translated by him into a throw- 
back quatrain it runs : 

" The Sphere and mankind, who therein in amaze are, 
Chinese-lantern like, well it may seem, to our gaze are ; 
See, the sun is the lamp and the world is the lantern 
And the figures ourselves, that revolve round the blaze are." 

As rendered by Fitz Gerald more literally than is 
his wont it ran in its first state as follows : 

" For, in and out, above, below, 
'Tis nothing but'a Magic Shadow-show, 

Play'd in a box whose Candle is the Sun 
Round which we Phantom Figures come and go." 


As altered later, it assumed the following more 
familiar form : 

" We are no other than a moving row 
Of Magic-Shadow shapes that come and go 

Round with the Sun-illumin'd Lantern held 
In Midnight by the Master of the Show." 

All who have read the published letters of 
Edward FitzGerald will have been struck by the 
infinite pains which he took to make this highest 
effort of his genius, the translation of Omar, as 
perfect as possible. His correspondence with his 
friend Professor Cowell teems with allusions to, 
and innumerable discussions on, minute points of 
meaning in the Persian. 

Therefore it will not surprise us to find that the 
figure of the Fanus i Khiyal (literally the lanthorn 1 
of fancy), here made use of in so masterly a manner, 
had its characteristics and peculiarities carefully 

By the kindness of Mrs. Edwin Edwards and 
the late Professor Cowell, I am enabled to give 
extracts from an unpublished letter written by the 

1 It is a not uninteresting fact that the old English spelling of the 
word " lantern" used above is due to the mistaken association of the 
word with the plates of transparent horn formerly used in place of glass. 


latter to FitzGerald in the year 1868, dealing some- 
what exhaustively with the matter. This letter 
appears to have been forwarded by FitzGerald to 
Edwin Edwards, the artist, by way of inspiration for 
an etched frontispiece to the edition of The Rubaiyat 
which was to be published by Quaritch in 1871, 
not, I think, in 1872, as Colonel Prideaux has it. 

From Professor Cowell to Edward FitzGerald. 

MY DEAR E. F. G. I have sent off one letter to you 
to-day, but I did not answer a question of yours in it, after 
all, which you remind me of in your letter just received by 
this evening's post. 

First as to the famous Fanus i Khiyal you will find it 
explained in a note by the editor at the end of my Calcutta 
Review Paper. I have often seen them in Calcutta. The 
lantern is about a foot and a half high and nearly a foot 
in diameter, and it moves round with a slow and slightly 
vibratory motion. The candle is placed inside, and the 
draught sends it round. The editor in his note explains 
how the draught is produced : They are made of a talc x 
cylinder with figures of men and animals cut out of paper 
and pasted on it. The cylinder, which is very light, is 
suspended on an axis, round which it easily turns. A hole 

1 This word is curiously enough misprinted " tall " in both Nichols' 
and Quaritch's editions of Mr. Heron-Allen's book, whilst in the 
note to Professor Cowell's article it is printed "tale." It is some- 
thing of a record, I should think, to find so many compositors and 
readers all at fault. 



is cut near the bottom, and the part cut out is fixed at an 
angle to the cylinder so as to form a vane. When a small 
lamp or candle is placed inside, a current of air is produced 
which keeps the cylinder slowly revolving. (Here is a 
small drawing.) 

I cannot recollect how it was suspended, the reviewer 
says, " on an axis." I think it was hung by a string from 
the top over a candle. I remember seeing it go round one 
evening in our dining-room the Khansamah brought one 
to show me. . . . 

Nicolas's Fanus 1 is more elaborate than our Calcutta one, 
but on the same principle. He says the figures move round 
from right to left or vice versa as may be. His J anal 2 is 
like mine, only it has a metal top and bottom the 
cylindrical sides being of waxed cloth and painted ; it has a 
handle fixed on the top which the man holds ; the candle is 
placed inside on the metal floor. . . . 

(Here is another small drawing.) . . . 

Yours affectionately, 

January 16, 1868. 

1 Professor Cowell here refers to J. B. Nicolas, author of a 
French translation of Omar, published at Paris, 1867. In a note 
to Les quatrains de Kheyam traduit du Persan, he says : ( ' In 
Persia the lantern is made of two copper basins, separated by a 
shade of waxed calico about a yard high. The lower one contains 
the candle, and the upper one has a handle for the arm of the ferrash 
who carries it. The shade is folded like the familiar ' Chinese lantern.' 
Ornaments are painted on the cloth, and it is to the vacillation of these, 
as the carrier shifts it from one hand to another, that Omar refers." 

2 Qy. : Has this French word for lantern the same root as Fanus ? 


The letter was illustrated with two rough 
drawings of the Farms for FitzGerald's guidance. 
The last of them represented the toy held out by 
a truncated arm. Edwin Edwards, to whom the 
letter was forwarded, at once with true artistic 
instinct caught at the suggestion unintentionally 
conveyed, and, as will be seen from the etching 
here reproduced, accentuated the hidden presence 
of the "Master of the Show," by making the 
arm which holds suspended this "Sun-illumined 
Lantern " of a world issue from the impenetrable 
darkness which hides its mysterious lord. Un- 
fortunately, the Fanus is not etched with great 
success, although the artist made a special visit 
to the old India Museum, now dispersed, to study 
an example there on exhibition. Had the etching 
equalled the conception, the design could hardly 
have failed to satisfy even FitzGerald's fastidious 
requirements. As it was, only a limited number x of 
proofs (from twenty to twenty-five) were printed 
by that cleverest printer of etchings, Mrs. Edwin 
Edwards, and the plate destroyed. Hence their 

1 At least six of these have lately gone to America where they were 
feverishly bought up by enthusiastic Omarians. 


The conception is a really fine one, and might 
well have proved an illustration of the text in the 
best sense of that much-abused term, being, as it 
is, a very different thing from a mere translation 
of the words into pictorial form. It is far more 
than this. It is an illuminator of the meaning, 
and accentuates its spiritual significance. This 
is what illustration should do, but rarely does 
do, in these days of rapid and perfunctory 

Of Edwin Edwards the artist I should like to 
take this opportunity of saying a word. His 
name is little known outside artistic circles, and 
it would be somewhat unfair to advertise it in 
connection with an etched plate which failed to 
give satisfaction without at the same time 
making allusion to pictorial work which was 
successful and meritorious. That he did produce 
work of real value is evident from the fact that 
one of his oil pictures of the Thames hangs at 
the Luxembourg in the Salle des Etrangers (for he 
was always more appreciated in France than in 
England), and that two years ago another canvas, 
and that hardly one of the best examples of his 


(By Edwin Edwards.) 


work, was chosen by Sir Edward Poynter to be 
well hung in the Tate Gallery. 

It may also be mentioned that high apprecia- 
tion of his talents has been shown across the 
Channel by eulogistic articles in the Gazette des 
Beaux Arts, Les Beaux Arts Illustres, La Vie 
Moderne, L'Art, etc., etc. 

It is, however, on his work as an etcher that his 
reputation must chiefly rest, and it would be more 
than unjust to allow the artist who produced such 
a tour de force as the great etching of "London 
from the Greenwich Observatory," to mention 
only one of his three hundred and seventy-one 
works in this medium, to be advertised by an 
etching, finely conceived it is true, but unsatis- 
factorily carried to an issue. 

Not that these facts will in any way affect the 
thoroughgoing rarity -hunter in his estimate of 
the suppressed plate here described. It will be 
enough for him to know that not more than a 
quarter of a hundred of his rivals can own a proof 
of the etching to make him ready to sell his last 
shirt for its acquisition. He will continue to value 
a print for its rarity rather than for its beauty, 


a book for its height in millimetres rather than 
for its depth in thought. 

No doubt these be hard words. Then why, it 
will be asked, pander to so foolish a passion? 
Shall I confess? Yes, indeed, and glory in the 
confession that I, too, am of the gentle brother- 
hood, that I, too, am a subscriber to The 
Connoisseur (or "The Connoyzer," as one of my 
friends at Mr. W. H. Smith's bookstall used to 
call that delightful publication), that I, too, in 
fine, that I am, by the favour of Fortune, the 
happy possessor of two proofs of the suppressed 
etching to the Omar of 1872 ! 

And now just one word with that gentle hunter, 
Mr. Thomas B. Mosher of Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 
who did me the honour of transferring a large 
portion of the above, originally written for The 
Bookman, to the pages of his beautiful 1902 edition 
of The Rubaiyat. Of that I make no complaint, 
for I think it very probable that he asked and 
obtained my permission. What I do complain of 
is that, in a footnote, he falls foul of me for being 
" ungracious " to Colonel Prideaux in suggesting 
the date 1871 as the year of publication of the 


third edition, instead of the year 1872, as Colonel 
Prideaux has it in his most Valuable little 
" Notes for a Bibliography of Edward FitzGerald " 
1901. Mr. Mosher says "no manner of doubt 
exists as to the date." Let me tell him that I 
have it on the authority of one who was on 
intimate terms both with FitzGerald and Edwin 
Edwards at the time when this third edition was 
published that, though the book bore the date 
1872 on the title, as a matter of fact it was 
published in the autumn of 1871 and post-dated. If 
it be " ungracious " to give Colonel Prideaux a piece 
of information which he had not the opportunity 
of obtaining for himself, then I sincerely hope that 
all who read this volume, and find themselves 
better informed, as well they may, than I am, will 
be equally ** ungracious " to me. La plupart des 
hommes riont pas k courage de corriger les autres, 
parcequils nont pas le courage de souffrir quon 
les corrige. 



" God bless the King, I mean the faith's defender, 
God bless no harm in blessing the Pretender. 
Who that Pretender is, and who is King 
Godjbless us all! that's quite another thing." 

So sang the old Jacobite John Byrom, and, taking 
my cue from him, I do not propose to enter here 
into the vexed question of James Francis Edward 
Stuart's claim to this or that title. 1 It is merely a 
happy accident that lends me so picturesque a 
figure round which to group certain pictorial 
rarities, germane to our subject, of which little is 
known, and of which the petit-maitre will be there- 
fore grateful for some particulars. 

The history i of the engraved copperplate is full 
of that kind of romance which peculiarly com- 

1 It may be mentioned that Jesse, in his Memoirs of \the 
Pretenders, always calls him James Frederick. 



mends itself to the lover of what is quaint and 
curious in the byways of art, and perhaps the most 
romantic phase of its history is that with which 
I am about to deal. It is the sort of romance 
which was inseparable from what may be called 
the pre-machinery days, and is as foreign to the 
spirit of this age as are the slashed doublets of 
our forefathers or the starched irrelevances of 
their wives. 

It may be, of course, that the Process block of 
to-day will be found to be as full of romance 
to-morrow. Indeed we have already found some 
indications of this in a former chapter, and it 
is probably true that romance is as all-pervading 
in the mental as ether is in the physical world, 
and that it is only lack of the proper intellectual 
reagent that makes the discovery of it difficult. 

However that may be, one thing is certain, that 
most of us find it easier to come at the "poetry 
of circumstance" when centuries or decades have 
left it behind than when it is at our immediate 

In these days of lightning pictorial satire, when 
Monday's political move is on Tuesday served up 



in genial topsy-turvy by " F. C. G." in the West- 
minster or " G. R. H." in the Pall Mall, and when 
Punch's weekly cartoon is voted seven days late 
by the Man in the Street, it is difficult for us 
to realise the shifts to which political satire was 
put when the laborious engraved or etched broad- 
side was the quickest method of getting at the 
picture-loving masses. Just imagine the agony 
of impatience of the political satirist who had 
designed his broadside and had to await the tardy 
engraving of the copperplate, to be followed by 
the deliberate hand-printing and hand-painting of 
the impressions before they could be published, 
perhaps only to find in the end that the nine-days' 
wonder was past, or that events had blunted his 
most telling points. 

So, too, when satirist was employed against 
satirist, how hopeless it seemed for retaliation to 
follow swiftly enough upon the occasion to make 
any retort in kind worth while at all. 

Then it was that the wit of man, quickened 
by necessity, conceived the clever stratagem of 
the adapted copperplate, of which it is here my 
purpose to give some remarkable examples. 


I fancy I see the victim of some shrewder libel 
than usual, with which the town has been flooded, 
pricking off in hot haste to the pictorial satirist 
in his pay, and demanding the production of a 
trenchant and immediate reply, so that the retort 
may be in the printsellers' windows before the 
attack has had time to do its deadly work. 

The satirist names a month as the earliest 
possible date. His employer curses him for a 
blundering slowcoach. Before a month is out the 
mischief will be done beyond repairing. And he 
is flinging himself out of the workshop when a 
happy thought comes with a flash into his head. 

How about the copperplate of that broadside 
which fell so flat a year ago because of its tardi- 
ness ? It was meant to be a counter-thrust to 
just such another attack as this, but it was a 
month too late. Is there no way of fitting a new 
barb on to the old arrow ? Is there no way of 
adapting the year -old weapon to the present 
necessity ? 

And then there follows anxious discussion and 
careful examination. The head of A. burnished 
out here can be re-engraved in the similitude of B. 


C. will stand as he is and do duty, with a new 
index number and altered footnote, for D. Here 
an inappropriate object can be replaced by a panel 
of appropriate verse. The inscriptions on the 
banderoles issuing from the characters' mouths 
must be altered. And, hey presto ! in the 
twinkling of a bedpost we have our answer ready 
for a not too critical public. 

The original lampooner, who counted on a good 
month's start, will be confronted with a retort 
before he has time to turn round. The whole 
town will be set buzzing about the successful ruse, 
and the laugh will be turned upon the aggressor. 

Of course it would be comparatively rarely that 
the adapted plate could be wholly apropos, but 
such capital ingenuity was exercised, once the 
stratagem had been imagined, that the practice 
was not so uncommon nor so unsuccessful as 
might be naturally expected. In this chapter I 
am only treating of those dealing with one 
particular episode, but I have in my possession 
at least thirty of these remarkable productions. 

From them we find that it was not always the 
engraver of a plate who re-adjusted his own handi- 


work, but piratical hands were sometimes laid 
upon the work of a master by mere journeymen 
engravers who did not scruple to leave the original 
artist's name for the better selling of the plate, 
although it had ceased to represent even in the 
remotest degree his sentiments or intentions. 

Indeed, I could tell of at least one remarkable 
plate originally prepared in honour of a certain 
great personage, which, being thievishly appro- 
priated by his opponents, was by them so 
judiciously metamorphosed as to cover him with 
as much confusion as it had originally panoplied 
him with honour. 1 

This is, I believe, the first time that any 
attempt has been made to bring this fascinating 
subject before the public. Incidentally it has 

1 Mozley, in his entertaining Reminiscences, tells the following 
story of the latter days of the Oxford Movement, which is somewhat 
parallel: "Isaac Williams published a volume of poetry called The 
Baptistry, upon a series of curious and very beautiful engravings, 
by Boetius a Bolswert, in an old Latin work, entitled Via Vita 
JEterna>. In these pictures, besides other things peculiar to the 
Roman Church, there frequently occurs the figure of the Virgin 
Mother, crowned and in glory, the object of worship, and distributing 
the gifts of Heaven. For this figure Williams substituted the Church, 
and thereby incurred a protest from Newman for adopting a Roman 
Catholic work just so far as suited his own purpose, without caring for 
the further responsibilities." 


been touched upon once or twice in publications 
of my own as it affected other byways in art, and 
has been alluded to in the Introductions to the 
Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British 
Museum (Satires), prepared under the direction 
of the late Keeper of the Prints and Drawings, 
George William Reid, by F. G. Stephens, to 
which monumental work all students of such 
subjects are profoundly indebted. But it has 
never been treated with anything approaching the 
completeness that it deserves. It is practically an 
unworked phase of print-collecting a new craze 
in which the dilettante may specialise. 

As I have said, we are fortunate in having in 
this place so picturesque a figure as that of the 
Old Pretender, or the Chevalier de St. George, as 
some like to call him, round whom to group our 
first batch of these pictorial palimpsests. 

James Francis Edward Stuart was, as all who 
know their history will remember, the son of 
James II. by his second wife, Mary of Modena. 
He was born on June 10, 1688, at St James's 

James II. was then in his fifty-fifth year. By 


his cruelties after Monmouth's rebellion, by his 
attack on the Universities, by the Trial of the 
Seven Bishops, by his Court of Commissioners of 
Ecclesiastical Causes, and by his misuse of the 
Dispensing Power he had alienated the whole 
nation, with the exception of a few Roman 
Catholics and hangers-on of the Court, and his 
throne was tottering. 

The only element of strength in his position 
was the certainty that sooner or later the crown 
was bound to pass to one of the Protestant 
daughters of his first marriage ; for though the 
present Queen had borne him four or five children 
they had all died young. It was now six years 
since there had been any hint of a royal birth. 
What were probably grossly exaggerated accounts 
of the King's early irregularities were matter of 
common gossip, and the Queen's health was far 
from robust. Suddenly, at a most opportune 
moment for the Roman Catholics so opportune 
a moment indeed that intrigue at once suggested 
itself it was announced to the world that Mary 
was with child, and a day of thanksgiving was 
appointed five months before the Queen's delivery. 


Now was the occasion for reviving a report 
which had been sedulously spread by the enemies 
of the Court from the very earliest days of the 
Queen's marriage that the King, in order to 
transmit his dominions and his bigotry to a Roman 
Catholic heir, had determined to impose a sur- 
reptitious offspring on his Protestant subjects. 

In due course came her Majesty's lying-in at St. 
James's, and although the King took every pre- 
caution, by the solemn depositions of forty-two 
persons of rank who were present, against questions 
arising as to the child's identity, the celebrated 
"warming-pan" story was hatched, which con- 
tinued to gain credence for more than half a 
century. Nor were circumstantial details of the 
most intimate nature in support of the lie wanting. 
During the labour, it was maintained, the curtains 
of the bed were drawn more closely than usual on 
such occasions ; neither the Princess of Orange, 
the nearest Protestant heir to the throne, nor her 
immediate adherents were asked to be in attend- 
ance ; an apartment had been selected for the 
Queen's accommodation in which there was a door 
near the head of the bed which opened on a back 


staircase. Though the weather was hot, and the 
room heated by the great crowd of persons 
present, a warming-pan was introduced into the 
bed ; and finally the pan contained a new-born 
child, which was immediately afterwards presented 
to the bystanders as the offspring of the Queen ! 

The following song, sung by two gentlemen 
at the Maypole in the Strand, is sufficiently 
explanatory : 

" As I went by St. James's I heard a bird sing, 
That the Queen had for certain a boy for a King ; 
But one of the soldiers did laugh and did say, 
It was born overnight and brought forth the next day. 
This bantling was heard at St. James's to squall, 
Which made the Queen make so much haste from Whitehall." 

The last line referred to the fact that the Queen 
had played at cards at Whitehall Palace till 
eleven o'clock on Saturday, June 9, whence she 
was carried in a chair to St. James's Palace, and 
on the Sunday, June 10, between the hours of 
nine and ten in the morning, "was brought to 
bed of a prince." 

It is a remarkable fact [says Jesse] that as early as 1682 
(six years before this), when the Queen, then Duchess of 
York, was declared to be pregnant, the same rumours were 



propagated as on the present occasion that an imposture 
was intended to be obtruded upon the nation. Fortunately 
on that occasion the infant proved to be a female, or doubt- 
less some improbable fiction would have been invented 
similar to that which obtained credit in 1688. 

Undoubtedly the whole thing was a lie, but it 
did its deadly work. 1 The whole nation was 
prepared to accept the flimsiest evidence, and 
within six months father, mother, and child had 
fled to France. 

So much for the story that inspired the re- 
markable broadsides with which it is here our 
purpose to deal. It will be noticed that these 
broadsides are all Dutch in their origin, a fact 
that is not surprising when we remember that they 
formed part of the propagandum which was soon 
to land William of Orange, the husband of James's 
eldest daughter, on the throne of England. 

The first that we reproduce is entitled 
" L'Europe Alarmee pour le Fils d'un Meunier." 

The artist is that remarkably clever Dutchman, 

1 Certain imprudent Roman Catholics gave colour to the popular 
belief by loudly expressing their opinion that a miracle had been 
wrought. One fanatic had even gone so far as to prophesy that the 
Queen would give birth to twins, of whom the elder would be King of 
England and the younger Pope of Rome ! 


Romeyn de Hooghe, whose delicate and facile 
handling of the point is well exemplified in the 
seascape at the back of the picture. 

Let us examine in detail the most important 
features of this elaborate broadside. 

The centre of attraction is, of course, the sur- 
reptitious infant Prince of Wales, who lies in his 
cradle to the left of the picture. Those assembled 
about him are discussing the possibility of the plot 
having $been discovered. On his coverlet are 
various playthings, amongst which is conspicuous 
a toy mill, emphasising, of course, the generally 
accepted belief that he was the son of a miller, 
for, in their lying, James's enemies were nothing 
if not circumstantial. This allusive toy figures 
in almost all the satiric prints dealing with the 
Old Pretender. 

At the foot of the cradle, which is decorated 
with an owl, an owlet, and a snake (emblems of 
evil), is a pap-bowl and spoon, half concealed by 
the arm of "the first mother" 1 (1) who seems to 

1 It is not easy to decide which of the female figures is intended to 
represent Mary of Modena and which the miller's wife. At first sight 
one would expect the Queen to be represented hy the central figure 3, 
but, on the other hand, I have in my possession a very rare mezzotint 


be pointing out to Father Petre (2), the instigator 
of the plot, that the child has been born too old. 
The Father, whose intimacy with the lady is 
suggested by a tender fondling of her right hand 
with his left, fingers his rosary with the other, and 
gazes fixedly into her eyes. 

Edward Petre was one of the best-hated men 
in the country, and was popularly looked upon as 
James's evil genius. The King would have made 
him Archbishop of York, but the Pope refused his 
dispensation. In the year preceding the produc- 
tion of this satire he had been made a Privy 

In the middle of the picture sits the "second 
mother " (3) in a highly-wrought chair, round the 
legs of which twine carved serpents. Tears 
course down her cheeks. With her right hand 
she points to the cradle as she listens to the 
counsels of the papal nuncio Count Ferdinand 
d'Adda (4), who, with armour peeping from under 

of the period which represents Father Petre and the Queen in almost 
identical attitudes as figures 1 and 2 in the present plate. This view 
of the matter is supported hy the following scandalous verse of the day : 

Some priests, they say, crept nigh her honour, 
And sprinkled some good holy water upon her, 
Which made her conceive of what has undone her. 


his robes and with his armoured foot treading on 
his naked weapon, recommends submission of the 
whole matter to the arbitrament of the sword. 

Immediately beyond the Cardinal stands Louis 
XIV. (5), James's faithful ally. In one hand he 
carries a bag of money, referring, doubtless, to his 
offer of five hundred thousand livres for the equip- 
ment of an English fleet to oppose the Prince of 
Orange's threatened invasion ; with the other he 
exposes to view a list of his army. 

Behind, and to the right of Cardinal d'Adda, 
Louis' son, the Dauphin of France, makes as 
though he would draw his sword, whilst the Pope 
(Innocent XI.), in shadow at the extreme right 
of the picture (7, the number is very indistinctly 
seen on the dark clothing) grasps the keys of 
St. Peter, and would seem to be sarcastically 
doubtful of the whole affair. "The Pope," 
says Voltaire, "founded very little hopes on the 
proceedings of James, and constantly refused 
Petre a cardinal's hat." 

Beyond the Pope is seen the armoured figure 
of Leopold I. (8), with the German eagle on his 
helmet. With his right hand he grasps his sword- 


hilt; with his left he gesticulates as though re- 
minding the war party that he also has to be 
reckoned with. No. 9 I cannot identify. 

Behind Mary of Modena's chair stands (13, the 
figure is on her breast) Catherine of Braganza, the 
childless wife of Charles II. She is doubtless 
lamenting that, when residing at Whitehall, she 
had not herself manufactured a prince on the 
Modena plan. Next to her (11, the figure is on 
the pillar) a doctor of the Sorbonne promises them 
all dispensations a hit at James's well-known 
misuse of the dispensing powers. Next to him, 
with his right hand convulsively grasping a roll of 
charters, stands James himself (10). In his left 
he carries parliamentary and corporation papers. 
With despairing eyes he gazes at the baby who, 
so far from giving, as he had fondly hoped, the 
finishing touch to the Roman Catholic triumph 
in England, is likely to prove the most damning 
count in the country's indictment of his iniquities 
and treasons. To the left the midwife (12) en- 
courages him to proceed with the imposture. 
Below her two monks (14 and 15), greatly 
alarmed, pray aloud at the head of the cradle. 


Immediately behind them two heralds, one 
mounted on an ass, blow on trumpets to call 
attention to the Dutch fleet, which is seen 
approaching through the right-hand arch, whilst 
through the left a fort is seen belching forth 
smoke and resisting the landing of the longboats. 

In the left corner of the picture certain 
Quakers (17, 18, 19), whose curious friendship with 
James must not be forgotten, deprecate the priests' 
blasphemies, whilst beyond them a crowd of Irish 
papists is suggested by their waving symbols and a 
torn flag embroidered with the sacred monogram. 
Behind the Quakers an oriental -looking person 
scans the heavens through a telescope. 

The colonnade beneath which all this takes 
place has its pillars surmounted by owls and a 
demoniacal bat. The arches are inscribed with the 
words "Het word hier nacht," and other in- 
scriptions are seen on the walls. On the extreme 
right of the picture is reared a banner bearing 
what appear to be the words " In utrumque 
Turgam," of which it is difficult to imagine the 
meaning. "In utramque Furcam," which would 
be intelligible, has been suggested to me as an 


alternative reading, but cannot, I think, be 
accepted. Another friend hazards " In utrumque 
(modum) resurgam," which may be freely trans- 
lated, " I shall be ' dormy ' either way," and would 
certainly make sense. Farther than that I cannot 
go with him. 

So much for the first state of this elaborate 
copperplate which did its part in propagating the 
lie which went far to lose for James II. the crown 
of England. 

After having served this purpose the plate 
was laid aside for nearly a quarter of a century. 
During this period the throne of England had 
been occupied by James II.'s two daughters, Mary 
and Anne, to the exclusion of their father, who 
died in exile in 1701, and of the Chevalier de St. 
George, whose proclamation by Louis of France 
as James III. of England 1 had been followed by 
the war of the Spanish Succession. 

In 1713, just twenty- four years after the plate 
had been engraved, the Peace of Utrecht, so 
vitally important as marking the beginning of 

1 In the Stuart Room at Madresfield Court Lord Beauchamp lately- 
showed me a portrait of the Chevalier, labelled " James III." ! 


England's commercial prosperity, was signed 
between England and France. Amongst other 
things it secured the Protestant Succession to 
the throne of England through the House of 
Hanover, and the dismissal of the Chevalier from 
France. The suspension of arms between the 
English and the French which preceded the 
signing of the treaty was seized upon as the 
opportunity for resuscitating the plate and adapt- 
ing it to the altered circumstances. Now did some 
pictorial vandal wrench and twist the figures to 
new and undreamt-of uses and turn the Council 
of War of 1688 into the Court of Peace between 
the Roses and Lilies of 1712 ! The plate now 
professes to be published in London, though, 
from the fact that the publication line runs. " A 
Londres chez Turner," and from sundry mis- 
spellings, it would appear certain that the altera- 
tions on the plate were effected abroad. 

In this second state the plate has been reduced 
at the top as far as the capitals of the pillars, and 
at the bottom as far as the left foot of the figure 
which represented Father Petre in the original. 
The index figures have also been changed. 



The explanation of the design as it now stands is 
contained in eighty-three lines of doggerel French 
verse. Taking the alterations one by one we find 
in the first place that the infant and cradle have 
been bodily removed, and (1) the "Plan de Paix" 
substituted. It bears the legend "Vrede tussen 
het Lelien en Roosen hof. Paix entre les Lis et 
les Roses picantes." 

The central figure (2) of the picture is now 
changed into an allegorical personage labelled 
"Pax," who holds in her left hand a paper 
inscribed "Juste Protestation des Allies," whilst 
with her right she indicates the "Plan de Paix." 
In this way the new artist, with some ingenuity, 
suggests that the spirit of peace is in sympathy with 
the dissatisfaction of the Allies at the negotiations 
which are proceeding between England and France. 
Her remonstrances are addressed to the figure on 
her left (3), which formerly represented Cardinal 
d'Adda, but is now labelled "Pole." (the Abbe 
Melchior de Polignac), who tries to allay her 
forebodings. The difficulty of the Cardinal's hat, 
which is of course out of place on an Abbe, is 
ingeniously got over by the writer of the French 


libretto, who refers to him as a Cardinal in petto. 
As a matter of fact the writer proved a good 
prophet, for, on the conclusion of the peace, for 
which Polignac was largely responsible, he was, 
on the nomination of the Chevalier de St. 
George, created and appointed Cardinal Maitre 
de la Chapelle du Roi. He was at the time of 
the publication of the altered plate plenipotentiary 
in Holland for the French. It will be noticed 
that the pince-nez and moustache have now been 
dispensed with. 

The figure behind Polignac (4), which originally 
stood for the Dauphin, who, by the way, was but 
lately dead, is now labelled at the foot " Mont-or " 
(the Duke of Ormond's name reversed), and at the 
head "Tori." By an ingenious turn of thought, 
the Dauphin's warlike action of drawing his sword 
is now metamorphosed into the Duke's conciliatory 
action of sheathing his. This refers, of course, to 
the instructions which he had received from the 
English Government, on taking over the command 
of the troops in the Low Countries from the Duke 
of Marlborough, to do all in his power to bring 
about a peaceful issue. 


Beyond Polignac the figure (5) which formerly 
represented Louis XIV. is now put to humbler 
uses, and merely represents a French herald. The 
paper in his left hand, which originally enumerated 
Louis' forces, now bears the gratifying legend : 

Bonne Paix 
De VAnglois 
Me rend guai. 

The lady in front of him (6), who formerly stood 
for Catherine of Braganza, now represents Maria 
Louisa of Savoy, the first wife of Philip V. of 
Spain (fortunately for him not such a fireband 
as his second wife proved to be). She turns to 
her handsome young husband (7) (here some- 
what libellously represented by the whilom " Old 
Hatchet Face") who has just renounced for 
himself and descendants all claims of succession 
to the crown of France. His right hand rests 
on the scroll of "charters" as before, but the 
document in his left now bears the legend : " Leli 
afstand onder Conditie" (The lily to surrender 
under conditions). 

Passing almost to the extreme right of the 
picture, the eagle - helmeted figure d (8) which 


before represented the Emperor Leopold I. now 
represents his son Charles VI., " Le Seigneur 
juste de la Cour d'Orient et Occident." Clutch- 
ing his huge sword, he expresses the anger of the 
Imperialists at the project for peace between 
England and France. In the end he refused to 
concur in the peace of Utrecht, and continued at 
war with France until 1714. 

On either side of him are two figures numbered 
alike (9, 9). That on his right, which bears the 
word " Wigh " engraved on his hat, represents the 
Duke of Marlborough, the deposed military leader 
of the Whigs. That on his left is one of the 
Duke's followers, who, by his drawn sword, points 
the allusion of the librettist to the " Pacificateur 
par le fer." 

To the extreme right of the picture (10) the 
Pope, now Clement XL in place of Innocent XL, 
encourages Polignac in his efforts for peace, and 
promises him " La Pourpre " as his reward. 

Returning to the middle background of the 
crowd we find (11, 11) two Jesuits. The one 
who looks over the left shoulder of No. 7 was 
in the first state of the plate a doctor of the 


Sorbonne. The index number of this figure is 
now on his hat. Originally it was on the pillar 
above him. This the adapter has apparently 
attempted to turn into a rough ornamentation 
by the addition of parallel strokes. Becoming 
dissatisfied, he has crossed out the whole by 
irregular horizontal lines. To the left of figure 
7 is seen (12) the Pretender, the surreptitious 
infant of the original, now grown to manhood, 
whispering in Philip of Spain's ear that though 
he claims as a Protestant the throne of his father, 
he is in his heart of the Romish faith. This figure 
originally represented the midwife, but has been 
metamorphosed by the addition of a man's hat, 
wig, and ruffles. 

To the extreme left of the foreground of the 
picture the erstwhile Father Petre is now trans- 
formed (13) into a Jesuit confessor, who amorously 
converses with (14) "La Courtisane de Bourbon," 
Madame de Maintenon. This cruel aspersion on 
the character of one who was really, though 
secretly, Louis XIV.'s wife, and whose noble- 
ness of character is now fully established, was 
characteristic of the times. The Plan de Paix, 


which was so obnoxious to the author of the 
satire, would seem to have just fallen from her 
fingers, and doubtless he is right in recognising 
that she had a hand in its consummation. 
Beyond the table sit a monk and friar (15, 15), 
as formerly, except that the removal of the cradle 
has necessitated an extension of their figures. In 
the background, against the left-hand pillar, is (16) 
the " Harlequin de France." In front of him the 
three figures (17, 18, 19), originally Quakers, are 
now referred to as "Esprits Libres." The man 
with the telescope (20) is "The Observer of Foreign 
Countries." The other subordinate figures are the 
same as before, save for the addition, in some cases, 
of index numbers. 

It is interesting to notice that this plate was 
so successful in its adapted state that it was made 
the basis of a design engraved for a German broad- 
side of the following year entitled " Der Fridens- 
Hoffzwischen der Rose und der versohnten Lilie," 
with which it has many points in common. 

I have treated of this plate at considerable 
length because it is the most important of the 
palimpsest plates of this period. I shall close 


this chapter by reproducing one other remarkable 
example designed in its first state to expose the 
same supposed wicked plot. In the next chapter 
I shall give another dealing with the birth of the 
Old Pretender, from which we shall gain some idea 
of the extent to which this clever stratagem of the 
adapted copperplate was made use of in the deliber- 
ate days of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
For the present I must pass over two elaborate 
broadsides engraved by Jean Bollard, and entitled 
respectively "Aan den Experten Hollandschen 
Hoofd- Smith" (To the Expert Dutch Head- 
Smith), and "Aan der Meester Tonge - Slyper " 
(To the Master Tongue- Grinder). These, as we 
shall see later, after doing their work against 
James II. and the Old Pretender, were seized upon 
many years afterwards by the piratical publisher 
of a remarkable Jansenist tract, called "Roma 
Perturbata, Ofte't Beroerde Romen, etc.," and 
adapted to the uses of the anti- Jesuit pro- 
pagandum, in the same way as "L'Europe 
Alarmee pour le Fils d'un Meunier," described 
above, was adapted after twenty-five years of 
idleness as a satire upon the Peace of Utrecht. 


It was this same piratical tractarian who seized 
upon the elaborate plate which I am here reproduc- 
ing, divorced it from its letterpress, cut the plate 
down to the size of his tract, and appropriated it 
in its second state to the purposes of "Roma 

In its first state, which I give here, together 
with its accompanying letterpress, the line of 
publication runs: "Gisling, Geneve, exc." and 
the title : 

Het beest van Babel is aan't vlucsten 

Die Godsdienst heeft niet meer te duckten. 

(The beast of Babel is flying, 
Religion has nothing more to fear.) 

The design is very elaborate and crowded with 
figures, those in the foreground being executed 
with considerable spirit. The Dutch Lion (1) 
carries a sword in its right front claws, as does 
that on the Persian flag of to-day. On its back 
rides William of Orange (7) with lance in rest 
and bearing a shield upon which St. Michael 
is represented combating sin in the shape of 
a dragon. William is supported by mounted 
soldiers, one of whom bears a flag inscribed with 


the words "Prot religion and libe" (For religion 
and liberty). Over his head flies a winged Revenge 
(3) carrying a shield in one hand and the lightnings 
of God's wrath in the other. Before him flies the 
seven-headed Beast of Babel (2), shorn of two of 
his heads, which lie bleeding on the ground beneath 
the lion. The monster, which "utters horrible 
shrieks," bears upon its back between its wings 
Father Petre (6), who holds on his lap the infant 
Pretender (5), to whom his "brains have so 
infamously given birth." The too -old infant 
carries in his hand the ever-present toy wind- 
mill. Blood pours from the decapitated necks of 
the Beast as he plunges with his accompanying 
rabble into the "pool of horrors." Priests and 
other Romish officials, some mounted on goats, 
asses, and wolves, flee (4) or are trampled under 
foot (8). 

In the mid background William of Orange (9), 
by a poetic licence able to be in two places at 
once, a fairly common convention even in serious 
pictures of that and an earlier date, 1 is being 

1 See, for example, Tintoret's great picture of "Adam and Eve " in 
the Accademia at Venice. 


greeted by the English nobles as their saviour. 
To the left, through an archway, James II. (10) is 
seen fleeing by boat with his wife and infant, 
though, as a matter of fact, he remained in 
England some months after the latter were safely 
abroad. To the right, through another arch, 
Louis XIV. (11) is seen " embracing the child and 
taking pity on his mother," and putting two of 
the curious, hearse-like carriages of the period at 
their disposal. Here we not only find Mary of 
Modena duplicated, but the infant Pretender 
triplicated in the same picture ! So much for the 
plate in its first state. 

In its second and adapted state it takes its 
place in the armoury of the anti-Jesuits. The 
Jansenist controversy was at its height in the year 
of grace 1705, and Jansenism, although nominally 
subject to Rome, was regarded favourably by the 
Protestant Dutch as being a reforming movement 
within the Roman Catholic Church against the 
theological casuistry of the Jesuits. 

This is not the place to go into the anti- 
Jansenist polemics of the Jesuits since the publi- 
cation of the "Augustinus" of 1640, though the 


interest of the matter is sufficiently tempting. 
We must content ourselves with remembering that 
now at the beginning of a new century a supreme 
effort was being made by the Jesuits in France 
to destroy completely the pious community of 
Port Royal ; that within four years they were to 
succeed in dispersing the nuns; within another 
year the cloister itself was to be pulled down ; 
that in 1711 the very bodies of the departed 
members of the community were destined to be 
disinterred from the burial ground with the 
greatest brutalities and indecencies ; and in 1713 
the church itself demolished. 

But, though Port Royal itself was doomed, 
Jansenism was finding freedom under the Protest- 
ant Government of Holland. 

In 1689 Archbishop Codde had been appointed 
by the Pope Vicar Apostolic in Holland. Soon, 
however, it was discovered by the Jesuits that he 
favoured the Jansenists. 

By the machinations of the Jesuits he was 
therefore invited to Rome, and treacherously 
detained there for three \years, in defiance of all 
canonical regulations. In the meantime the Pope 


appointed Theodore de Cock in his place, with the 
intention of crushing the Jansenists in Holland. 
Codde thereupon made his escape from Rome, 
and the well-known struggle of the Jansenists of 
Utrecht and Haarlem for a legitimate episcopal 
succession began. 

This was the juncture at which our copper- 
plate was to do duty a second time, and for such 
different ends. 

It has been divorced from its letterpress, altered 
in certain details and slightly cut away at the top 
and bottom. Like those dealing with the Head 
Smith and Tongue Sharpener, as will be seen in 
the next chapter, it has been appropriated to the 
uses of "Roma Perturbata." It is now entitled 
on the panel which has been inserted at the spring 
of the arches " Door Munnike- Jagt, Word Babel 
Verkracht " (By chasing monks, Babel is assailed), 
and the piratical publisher has made many 
ingenious alterations. The possibly punning 
publication line runs : " Benedictus Antisolitarius 
excudit Rom." Above this appears the chrono- 



The Lion (1) still represents Holland and hunts 
the Beast of Babel (2) assisted by the winged 
Revenge (3), whose lightnings have now been 
increased to seven to represent the heraldic arrows 
of the Seven United Provinces. This device also 
now appears on the shield of Holland's Knight 
(7) in place of that of St. Michael and the 
Dragon. The banner of his followers is now 
inscribed "Pro Secularibus." As champion of 
the Jansenists the Knight puts to rout "all the 
bald heads (4, 4, 4, 4), together with 'their 
protector Kok" (6), who "in disguise" rides 
between the wings of the Beast with an ille- 
gitimate child (5) on his lap, from whose right 
hand the toy windmill of the infant Pretender 
has been removed. In the background to the 
left, others, in the quaint words of the Dutch 
letterpress (10), "escape quickly from the town 
by water, while they are clothed like gentlemen 
in order not to be known as monks." In the 
background to the right, others flee "like great 
gentlemen in carriages," a fairly ingenious adapta- 
tion of James II. 's flight and Louis' welcome of 
the fugitives. 


The group in the middle background is now 
made to represent Codde (8.B), who has escaped 
from Rome and is being welcomed back by the 
representatives of the State (9, 9). 



IN the last chapter I claim to have introduced the 
reader to a phase of print -collecting which has 
in it a sporting element of a peculiarly enticing 
character. The pursuit of what I have called 
palimpsest copperplates offers entertainment of 
the very best to one who would make it a 
speciality, and, perhaps, the most alluring thing 
about this curious quarry is that the hunter will 
never be satisfied after running it to earth until 
he has secured and coupled it in his portfolio with 
its necessary and enchanting fellow. 

I propose in this chapter to give a few more 
specimens of these curious adapted plates. 

Many examples of reheaded statues and adapted 
portraits lie around us. Mr. Augustus Hare tells 
of a representation of Lady Georgina Fane in 
Brympton Church, which consists of the head of 



that ready-witted lady " added to the body of an 
ancestress who was headless," whilst any visitor to 
Yarmouth Church, Isle of Wight, may see the 
imposing marble effigy of Admiral Sir Robert 
Holmes, which consists of the head of that 
gallant sailor surmounting the body of Louis 
XIV. It appears that Sir Robert, having 
captured the vessel in which the Italian -made 
torso of the Grand Monarque was being conveyed 
to France for the modelling of the head, retained 
the unfinished work and crowned it with his own 
august features a good example of the resource- 
fulness of the English character. 

Again, Macaulay, enlarging upon the popularity 
of Frederick the Great in England, tells how at 
one time enthusiasm reached such a height that 
the sign-painters were everywhere employed in 
touching up the portraits of Admiral Vernon, 
which hung outside innumerable public -houses, 
into the likeness of the King of Prussia, a curious 
commentary, by the way, on the family motto, 
" Ver non semper virit." * Further, it is on record 

1 The following extract from a recent newspaper shows that the 
practice has not yet altogether died out : 

" In the action of Tussaud v. Stiff, heard in the Chancery Division by 


that after Trafalgar such was Nelson's popularity, 
that Daniel Orme, engraver to George III., bought 
a plate of Napoleon at the sale of a Ludgate Hill 
printseller's effects, and altered it into a portrait 
of our national hero. 

Examples such as these might be multiplied, but 
here are enough for our purpose. They show that 
the systematic practice of copperplate adaptation 
has its counterpart in other departments of art. 

We will now consider a curious broadside 

Mr. Justice Buckley yesterday, the plaintiff, Mr. Louis Tussaud, sought 
to restrain defendant by injunction from carrying on his business of 
exhibiting models in such a way as to induce the public to believe that 
the models he showed were the work of the plaintiff. It was stated by 
the plaintiff's counsel that, in consequence of an injunction granted 
some years ago, it became necessary for the plaintiff to carry on his 
exhibition as Louis Tussaud's New Exhibition in Regent Street. It 
was afterwards turned into a limited liability company, and removed 
to the Alexandra Palace. Some of the models were sold to the 
defendant, but no goodwill of the business was sold. The defendant 
had since opened several exhibitions of waxworks, other models had 
been added to those sold by the plaintiff, and the models of the plaintiff 
had been split into a considerable number of pieces, while models made 
by other persons than the plaintiff were exhibited as Louis Tussaud's 
waxworks. Counsel informed the Court that in one case the head of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury had been put on the body of Charles Peace, and 
in another instance Napoleon was represented as taking part in the execution 
of Mary Queen of Scots. The defendant's present exhibition was a penny 
show in the Edgware Road. In another instance the head of Mr. Ritchie, 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, was put upon a dying soldier." 

The Mr. Louis Tussaud here mentioned must not be confused with 
Mr. John Tussaud of the Marylebone Road Exhibition. 

L~, *.vJiv^- 


(The letterpress is not reproduced.) 

T/n> plate as adapted by the anti- Jesuits. 


published about the year 1688, the copperplate 
heading of which was destined to be seized upon 
and adapted to other purposes nearly twenty years 
later by the piratical publisher referred to ml the 
last chapter. 

As will be seen from our reproduction, its letter- 
press is addressed, "Aan der Meester Tonge- 
Slyper" ("To the Master Tongue Grinder"). 
The engraver's name does not appear, but the 
work is easily distinguished as that of Jean 
Bollard, by comparing it with other signed en- 
gravings of the same series of pictorial satires. 

Two men at a grindstone sharpen a tongue, 
Another tongue lies on the anvil. Two labourers 
empty a large hamper of tongues into a basket, 
which is steadied by a woman. Point is given to 
the picture by the gossiping groups seen through 
the door and window, and especially by the two 
Xantippes who, with arms akimbo, are slanging 
each other in good earnest. 

The doggerel letterpress refers to the birth of 
the Old Pretender, and the mendacious tongues of 
the conspirators are being delivered to the smith 
to be coerced into speaking the truth. 


Here is a free translation of the passage, 
beginning " Heden zyn my over London " : 

" To-day I received from London a cargo of those goods 
which you have to take in hand ; I have some of the biggest 
size, The Admiral of the First Flag, which has been used so 
much and has become black from lying, and which, after all 
appearances, seems to have had his end bitten off; scrape 
thoroughly his thick skin or he will be up to anything ; 
swearing oaths, breaking bonds, falsely protecting the 
Church is his daily work."" 

And so on, until it ends with the moral : 

" Nothing more useful than whetting the tongue 
When its aim is to speak the truth. 
But when it is given to lying, 
It must be pierced, flayed, and scraped." 

So much for the plate in its first state. In its 
second we find it published seventeen years later, 
and somewhat ingeniously adapted to the new 
exigencies. It now takes its place in the armoury 
of the anti-Jesuits, and is published without any 
acknowledgment in the pamphlet, entitled Roma 
Pertubata Oftet Beroerde Romen, etc., etc., 
referred to in the last chapter. This pamphlet, 
which is a very warren of palimpsest plates (it has 
at least four, and possibly there are others), may 


be seen in the print-room of the British Museum. 
It may, too, as I have myself proved, be discovered 
at rare intervals in the shops of the old printsellers 
in Holland. Mine is in a parti-coloured paper 
wrapper, whether as issued or added later I 
cannot say. It consists of title-page, table of 
contents, and eleven full-page copperplate engrav- 
ings of extraordinary interest. Curiously enough, 
the table of contents makes no reference to the 
eleventh and last. Our palimpsest is number 9. 1 

In its new surroundings it has (vide reproduc- 
tion) been divorced from its letterpress, and been 
cut away at the bottom. A descriptive panel has 
been engraved over the doorway, and other letter- 
ing added here and there. The publication line, 
" tot Tongeren by J : la Langue," apparently a 
bogus one, playing on the words of the original, 
"a Langres chez Tongelel," now appears within 
the border of the design. 

The tongue which lies on the anvil is now 
pierced by the seven heraldic arrows of the Dutch 
Provinces, and words are engraved below to the 

1 Grateful acknowledgments are here due to the splendid Catalogue 
of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum, 5 vols., which should be 
in the library of every collector of satirical prints. 


effect that "There is no worse evil than that a 
Pope's tongue dares slander the State," and on 
the base of the anvil, "He has given way to 
slander. You must forge him before you grind 

Below the quarrelling women are the words : 
"These maids are quarrelling for de Kok," refer- 
ring to scandals which were afloat concerning the 
morality of the Pope's vicar-general, and a Latin 
chronograph appears at the feet of the chief smith. 

The inscription over the door gives directions 
to "The Romish Dutch Grinder of Tongues," 
and, amongst other things, says of the tongue on 
the anvil, " That is de Kok's tongue, wounded by 
seven arrows, because he has slandered the State 
by his speech," which statement hardly tallies with 
the inscription on the anvil, unless the vicar- 
general may be regarded as the very mouthpiece 
of the Pope. 

This is no place, as I have said, to enlarge upon 
the Jansenist propagandum, but it will well repay 
the enthusiastic historian to follow out the above 
allusions to their original source. 

So much for our adapted broadside. 


P^I^TI^^IT i /ne*su***i**'Sf/ 
eatMan^gp or the S COT G H 


I would ask you now to look at the two prints 
entitled respectively "The Stature of a Great 
Man, or the English Colossus," and " The Stature 
of a Great Man, or the SCOTCH Colossus." 

The first, dated 1740, represents Sir Robert 
Walpole, then in the plenitude of his power. He 
stands on two woolpacks. Between his legs is 
seen the British fleet lying inactive. He is 
flanked by Marines on the left crying "Let us 
fight," and sailors with drawn swords on the right 
declaring their readiness to die "Pro Patria." The 
plate teems with allusions to his reluctance to 
go to war, by which he was subjecting his 
country to the insults and aggressions of Spain 
and France. 

Twenty-two years later the plate was resur- 
rected and altered to its second state, in which it 
is made to represent Lord Bute. The lower part 
of the plate, bearing the quotation from Shake- 
speare and the "Description," has been now cut 
away, and "Scotch" inserted in the place of 
" English " in the title. The chief alterations are 
the reduction of the full-bottomed wig and the 
addition of a wig-tie of black ribbon, the addition 

- a 


of a star on the breast, and a new and abusive 
inscription on the right-hand document. In this 
case the adapter has shown but little ingenuity. 

We will now turn to a far more elaborate 
example, which, in its first state, as will be seen 
in the reproduction, represents Queen Anne pre- 
siding in state over the House of Lords. The 
plate is etched by Romeyn de Hooghe. 

At the top of the picture, between female 
figures representing Plenty and War, is suspended 
a cloth, on which the Queen is shown presiding 
over the House of Commons. At her side sits 
Prince George of Denmark. The whole is sur- 
mounted by the words, " Het Hoog en Lager 
Huys van Engeland." Left and right of the cloth 
are scrolls bearing the legends, "Hinc gloria 
regni " and " Hinc felicitas publica." 

At the base of the plate are two small self- 
contained etchings. That on the left shows the 
heralds proclaiming the Queen ; that on the right 
shows Her Majesty sitting in Council. Between 
these are inscribed the following words : 

" Annae D. G. 
Magnse Britanniae Reginae/' etc., etc. 


The main design is crowded with details and 
figures of the utmost interest, any description of 
which is forbidden by the space at my disposal. 
The artist's signature is to be seen on the floor of 
the Hall. 

Thirteen years were now to elapse before it was 
transformed into the glorification of George I. 
The King now takes the place of the late Queen 
in the House of Lords. The throne in the House 
of Commons is vacant. The inscription on the 
cloth has been re-engraved, and " Engeland " 
changed to "Engelandt." The title and the 
panels at the bottom of the plate have been cut 
away, and the index numbers on the main design 
and the index letters on the cloth have been 
altered. The designer's name has been removed 
from the floor of the House, and engraved on the 
right-hand corner of the plate. 

These are the main differences. The curious 
reader may occupy himself in discovering others. 

The next example here reproduced I give 
because of the peculiarly drastic changes which 
have been made by the pirate into whose hands 
the plate has fallen. 



In its original state it bears the punning title, 
" The Races of the Europeans with their Keys." 
The line of publication runs : " Geo. Bickham, 
jun r> inv*- et sculp. According to the late Act, 
1740. Price Is. Sold at ye Black Moors Head 
against Surry Street in y e Strand." The com- 
posite design is made up of variorum copies of four 
separate prints recently published. These are 
enclosed in the four quarters of an elaborate 
design, surmounted by a crouching wolf. At the 
point where the four corners meet is a grotesque 
horned head. At the foot are a mask and a 
poniard. Each panel is differently dated, and 
surmounts its own set of explanatory notes. The 
allusions to contemporary politics are most in- 
geniously conceived, but are so numerous that 
space forbids even their barest description. 

In its second state the plate is entitled " A Skit 
on Britain." The line of publication runs the same 
as before, saving the name of the artist, which has 
been changed into "Ged Bilchham." A line of 
script has also been added on this copy, which 
states that "This plate is upon the same copper 
as 'The Races of the Europeans,' much of the 


allusions not having been obliterated," which seems 
considerably to understate the case. The enclosing 
design is certainly much the same as before, though 
in this there are many alterations in detail, but of 
the four engravings by far the greater portion has 
been removed. The aerial parts are practically 
untouched, but of the crowds of figures only a 
few unimportant groups remain. All the tables 
of reference have been burnished out, and are 
replaced by doggerel verses. The dates have been 
removed from the four compartments, and in the 
places of three of them appear " Porto Bello, Nov. 
1739," "Cartagena," and "The Havana," while the 
fourth is left blank. The main part of the satire 
is directed against the policy of Sir Robert 
Walpole, but is of too elaborate a nature to 
be entered upon here. 

Before concluding this account of palimpsest 
plates I shall reproduce three very curious prints 
in which the substitution of one head for another 
is more than usually outrageous. 1 The original 

1 The earliest example of the artist as Headsman that I have come 
across is a very rare portrait of Queen Elizabeth, full length, seated 
on a throne, dressed in a robe of state, holding globe and sceptre, 
engraved about 1590. The Queen's figure was subsequently burnished 



engraving was by Pierre Lombart after a made-up 
portrait of Charles I., on horseback, professing to 
be by Vandyck. 

The plate was executed before the execution 
(save the mark !) of the Martyr King. After his 
death the head of Cromwell was substituted, no 
doubt for commercial purposes. Finally, Charles 
the First's head was restored (again save the 
mark!) after the Restoration. Our reproductions 
are from what would seem to be the second, third, 
and fourth states of the plate though a first state 
is not known. It will be observed that, in the 
earliest namely, that in which the head has been 
removed altogether the scarf is brought across 
the left shoulder, and tied under the right arm. 
whilst the page-boy has bands and frills to his 
breeches. In the next, or third state, in which 
Cromwell's head has been inserted, the scarf has 
been removed from the shoulder, and is tied round 
the waist, whilst the bands and frills have been 
removed from the page-boy's nether garments. In 
the next, or fourth stage of the plate, in which 

out, and that of James I. substituted. This, unfortunately, I do not 



Charles's head has been re-inserted, there are, 
besides the substitution of one head for the other, 
a few minor alterations, such as the addition of the 
Cavalier moustache to the face of the page-boy, 
the restoration of the frills to his breeches, the 
alteration of the pattern of the rider's collar, the 
addition of the order of St. George to the rider's 
breast, and the substitution of the royal coat of 
arms for those of the Protector at the bottom of 
the engraving. There are also other known states 
of the plate, reproductions of which may be seen 
in Mr. Alfred Whitman's Print-Collector s Hand- 
book. These were unknown to me when I wrote 
the above description. 1 

So much for historical instances of putting new 
heads on old shoulders. But, if I am not mistaken, 
the very modern restoration of the west front of 
one of our great cathedrals shows a late Dean's 
head surmounting the body of a saint or king, 

1 Since writing this I paid a visit to the Hall of the Middle Temple, 
when the very intelligent custodian told me that Cromwell ordered 
the great Vandyck, which hangs over the high table, to be taken down, 
and his own somewhat repellent countenance painted in in the place of 
that of Charles I. Fortunately for posterity this outrageous order was 
not carried out. The whole affair reminds one of the unconsciously 
grim entry in a certain bookseller's catalogue which ran, " Memoirs of 
Charles the First with a head capitally executed." 





which had been mutilated by Cromwell. It would 
be cruel, perhaps, to be more specific, as vanity 
is not the most pleasing of the Christian virtues. 

Again, there was lately a good deal of laughter 
caused by one of the whims of the German 
Emperor. It appears that his artistic eye had 
been offended by the incompleteness of a fine 
headless torso which was brought to the father- 
land some years since. Everything, he was aware, 
could be made in Germany, so what more natural 
than to offer a prize for the best completion of the 
work of a Phidias or a Praxiteles ? Finis coronat 
opus, and the sculptors of Germany were called 
upon to compete. None of the results, however, 
satisfied His Imperial Majesty, and two of the 
artists have been commissioned to try again. 
Would it be lese-majestie to suggest that there is 
only one head in Germany that would prove quite 
acceptable ? I present the idea to the competitors. 

Enough has been written to show that the 
pursuit of the palimpsest plate is sport of the 
very finest for the collector, for it is a sport 
which does not cease with the running of the 
quarry to earth. 


I have reproduced, without comment, opposite 
pages 244 and 246, and on pages 245, 247, and 249, 
a few more of these adapted copperplates for the 
sake of any one who may be fortunate enough to 
possess either the original or the palimpsest. He 
will find it no bad sport to go hunting for its 




mvn ooe r-t,nd 
/ /-. 

Aan den Experten Hollandlchen Hoofd- Smith. 

The plate as adapted. 

A Hilfory of the New PLOT: Or, A Profped of 

ConfoLoa. ,harDefn. Damnable, Ends Miferable, Deaths En,pUry 

Plate as originally published. 

Plate adapted to other uses. 



" Aan den Experteii Hollandschen 

Hoofd-Smith," 216, 243 
" Aan der Meester Tonge-Slyper," 

216, 230-233 


Ainsworth, Harrison, 3 
Alken, Henry, 157-160 
Allen, Archdeacon, 10 
American Notes, 2 
Anne, Queen, 237, 238 
Antiquities of Westminster, 150- 

A Pop -Gun fired off by George 

Cruikshank, 79 

" A Skit on Britain," 239, 240 
"A Trifling Mistake," 70-73 

Ballad of Beau Brocade, The, 3 

" Becky Sharp," 10 

Bentleys Miscellany, 43-52 

Bewick's Birds, 68 

Book of Snobs, 9 

" Breeches " Bible, Barker's, 2 

Brougham, Lord, 62 

Browne, H. K., 27, 28, 29, 31, 

33, 54-56 
Bruton, Mr. H. W., 48, 49, 69, 


Buffon, M., 5 
Bunn, Alfred, 10 
Burlington, Earl of, 98-107 
" Burlington Gate," 108 
Burns, Robert, 2 

Buss, Miss F. M., 34 

Buss, R. W., 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 

Bute, Lord, 235, 236 

Calcraft, Captain Granby, 9 
Capel, Monsignor, 2 
" Captain Granby Tiptoff," 9 
" Captain Shindy," 9 
Carteret, Lord, 112 et seq. 
Catalogue of Prints and Drawings 

in the British Museum, 92 et 

passim, 198 et passim 
Chandos, Duke of, 101 
Chapman and Hall, Messrs., 33, 55 
Charles I., 241-242 
Charles Dickens, The Story of his 

Life, 27 

Churchill, Charles, 107-111 
Clarissa Harlowe, 5 
Coaching Days and Coaching Ways, 


Cochrane, Lord, 65 
Coningsby, 12, 13, 20 
Cowell, Professor, 184-186 
Crawhall, Joseph, 135-138 
" Credulity, Superstition, and 

Fanaticism : a Medley," 88 

et seq 

Croker, J. W., 12 
Cromek, R. H., 5 
Cromwell, Oliver, 241, 242 
Cruikshank, George, 42, 45-54, 

59-81, 161 




Cruikshank's Portraits of Himself) 


Cumberland, Duke of, 60-69 
Cumberland, Princess Olive of, 


" Danae in the Brazen Chamber," 


Death in London, 154-158 
Dexter, Mr. J. P., 41 
D'Horsay ; or the Follies of the 

Day, by a Man of Fashion, 13 
Dickens and his Illustrators, 40, 


Dickens, Charles, 2, 26 et seq. 
f his American Notes, 2 

his suppressed portrait, 27, 28 
Dickens Memento, 47 
Dictionary of National Biography, 


Dighton, Richard, 25 
Disraeli, Benjamin, 2, 10, 12, 

Dobson, Mr. Austin, 3, 82 et 

passim, 174 
Don Quixote, 113 et seq. 
"Don Quixote releases the Galley 

Slaves," 118, 122 
"Don Quixote seizes the Barber's 

Basin," 118, 120 
"Drop it!" 78 
Du Maurier, George, 162-173 

Edwards, Edwin, 179-191 
Elizabeth, Queen, 240 
"Enthusiasm Delineated," 83 et 

Essay on the Genius of George 

Cruikshank, 77 

Fane, Lady Georgina, 226 
Fanus i Khiyal, 185-191 
Figaro in London, 63, 64 
" Financial Survey of Cumberland 

or the Beggar's Petition," 60 
FitzGerald, Edward, 40, 179- 

Frederick the Great, 227 

Garrick Club, The, 8, 9 
George I., 238 
George IV., 11 
" George Garbage," 9 
Gray, J. M., 148 
Grimm's Fairy Tales, 42 

" Harry Foker," 9 
Hertford, Marchioness of, 75 
Hertford, Marquis of, 10 et seq. 
History of Pickwick, 29 
Hobhouse, John Cam, 70-73 
Hogarth Illustrated, 84 
Hogarth, William, 82 et seq. 
Holmes, Sir Robert, 227 
Hook, Theodore, 9, 10 

Ireland, John, 84 et seq., 113 et seq. 
Irving, Washington, 2 
Italian Tales, 74 
Italy, 3 

James I., 241 

Jansenists, the, 221 et seq. 

Jesuits, The, 221 et seq. 

"JoeSibley," 163-173 

Jones, W. N., 68 

Jorrocks's Jaunts and Jollities, 158 

Keene, Charles, 127-139 
Kitton, F. G., 40 

"LadyKew," 10, 22 
Langford, Lady, 10 
Lawrence, Sir Thomas, 19 
Leech, John, 33, 36-38, 40, 41 
"L'Europe alarmee pour le Fils 

d'un Meunier," 202-216 
Life of Dickens, 37, 46 . 
Lippincott's Magazine, 10 
" Lord Walham," 23 
Lothair, 2 

"Marquis of Hereford," 14 
Martin Chuzzlewit, 26, 53 
"Monsignor Catesby," 2 
" Mr. Dolphin," 10 
"Mr. John Jorrocks," 158-161 



" Mr. Pickwick at the Review/' 33 

" Mr." Pitt Crawley, 15 

Mr. Thackeray, Mr. Yates, and the 

Garrick Club, 8 
"Mr. Wardle and his Friends 

under the Influence of the 

Salmon/' 33 
" Mr. Winkle's First Shot," 33 

Napoleon, Emperor, 228 
Nelson, Lord, 228 

Oliver Twist, 26, 43-52 
Once a Week, 127, 140-148 
Orange, William of, 217 et seq. 

Pailthorpe, Mr. F. W., 56 

Pall Mall Gazette, 166-169 

Palmer, Samuel, 56 

Pendennis, 9 

Penelope's English Experiences, 38 

Phillimore, Mr. F., 47 

" Philoprogenitiveness," 77, 78 

Pickwick, 26, 28 et seq., 43 

Pictures from Italy, 56 

Pine's Horace, 54 

Poems, Burns's, 2 

Pope, Alexander, 98-107 

Price, Stephen, 9 

Prideaux, Colonel, 190-191 

Punch, 127 et seq. 

Queensberry, Duke of, 23 

Reid's Catalogue of George Cruik- 
shank's Works, 45, 62, 69 

Ritchie, Mrs., 10 

Robertson, J. C., 154-158 

Rogers, Samuel, 3 

"Roma Perturbata, Ofte't Ber- 
oerde Romen, etc.," 216 et 

fc Rose May lie and Oliver at 
Agnes's Tomb," 45 et seq. 

Roxborough, Duke of, 2 

" Royal Hobbys of the Hertford- 
shire Cock Horse," 75 

Ruskin, John, 3, 4 

Sala, G. A., 39, 40 

Sandys, Frederick, 127, 139-148 

Scott, Sir Walter, 2 

Seymour, Robert, 29, 31 

" Sholto Percy," 154-158 

Sketch Book, Washington Irving's, 2 

Sketches by Box, 55, 57, 58 

Smith, J. T., 150 

Smith, Wyndham, 9 

Spielmann, Mr. M. H., 128 et 


Sporting Snobs, 9 
Stanislaus Hoax, 10 
Stephens, F. G., 88 
Stothard, T., 5 
Stuart, James Francis Edward, 

198 et seq. 

Surtees, R., 158 
Swain, Mr. Joseph, 140-148 

Talpa, 78 

Tenniel, Sir John, 133 

Thackeray, W. M., 7 et seq. 

The Artist, 145 

The Battle of Life, 26, 34-40 

The Battle of London Life ; or Box 

and his Secretary, 39 
"The Bruiser," 110, 111 
The Builder, 107 
The Chimes, 36, 41 
The Christmas Carol, 36 
" The Cricket Match," 29, 32 
"The Curate and the Barber," 

121, 125 

" The Dead Rider," 74 
"The Fireside Scene," 26, 44 et seq. 
" The First Interview," 121, 123 
" The Free and Easy," 57 
"The Funeral of Chrysostom," 


The History of Punch, 128 et seq. 
The Hobby Horse, 144 
"The Innkeeper," 114 
"The Innkeeper's Wife and 

Daughter," 118 
" The Last Song," 42 
"The Man of Taste," 98-107 



"The Marquis of Steyne," 7 et 

The Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi, 41, 


The Newcomes, 22 
" The Painted Chamber/' 150-153 
" The Races of the Europeans with 

their Keys/' 239 
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, 


The Speaker, 21 
"The Stature of a Great Man, 

or The English Colossus," 

"The Stature of a Great Man, or 

The Scotch Colossus/' 236 
The Strange Gentleman, 54, 55 
The Street of the Tombs, 

Pompeii," 56 
The Times, 109 
The Tower of London, 3 
" The Two Apprentices," 163-173 
The Two Paths, 3 
The Vicar of Wakefield, 171-175 
The Virginians, 9 

"The Worship of Wealth," 53, 


Thomson, Mr. Hugh, 3, 171-178 
Thornhill, Sir James, 111, 112 
"Tom Smart and the Chair," 33 
Town Talk, 8, 9 
Trilby, 162-173 
Tristram, Mr. Outram, 175 
Truman, Edwin, 69 
" Tupmari and Rachel," 29, 32 

Van der Banck, Johan, 112, 113 
Vanity Fair, 7 et seq. 
Vernon, Admiral, 227 
Vivian Grey, 10 

Wallace, Sir Richard, 20, 22 
Walpole, Horace, 25 
Walpole, Sir Robert, 234, 236 
Westminster Review, 78 
Whistler, James M'N., 163-173 
Wilde, Oscar, 168 
Wilkes, John, 109-111 

Yates, Edmund, 8, 9 


Printed by R. & R. CLARK, LIMITED, Edinburgh. 







"This delightful volume, with its scores of illustrated letters, and 
sketches and charming pictures, will be very widely welcomed. No one 
could wish for a more satisfactory memorial of the artist and her work." 
Daily Graphic. 

"Whether as regards its subject, its letterpress, or its illustrations, 
this is one of the most delightful, as it is likely to become one of the most 
popular volumes of the series to which it belongs." Aberdeen Journal. 

" Certainly one of the most beautiful monuments that could be erected 
to the memory of a modest artist." Daily Mail. 

" By reason of its sympathetic treatment of an intensely interesting 
subject, of the charm, the quality, and the profusion of its illustrations, and 
of the faultless taste of its get-up, should rank among the favourite gift- 
books of the approaching Christmas season." Observer. 

" A book which will delight young and old by its engaging charm." 
Jewish World. 

" The volume, magnificent to behold, is a deeply interesting one to 
read, and should be peculiarly attractive to our readers." Gentlewoman. 

" This delightful book should prove a capital present to give to young 
folks at Christmas time. The pictures in it are very beautiful, while the 
story of Kate Greenaway's fight for fame is sympathetically told." Scottish 

" The book is admirably done, thorough, sympathetic, and accurate." 





It may safely be asserted, without fear of contradiction, that the dainty water-colour 
drawings executed by Birket Foster appeal to the majority of the British public more 
than the works of any other artist. He produced scenes from nature with such exact- 
ness and minuteness of detail that the most uninitiated in art are able to understand 
and appreciate them, but the chief features in his paintings are the poetic feeling with 
which he endued them, and the care with which his compositions were selected. He 
revelled in sunny landscapes with roaming sheep and with rustic children playing in 
the foreground, and in the peaceful red-bricked cottages with thatched roofs ; it is, 
perhaps, by these scenes of rural England that Birket Foster is best known. He, how- 
ever, was an indefatigable painter, and produced works selected from all parts of 
England, Wales, and Scotland ; he travelled frequently on the Continent ; Venice, as 
well as the Rhine, had its charms for him, and the picturesque scenery of Brittany has 
also been portrayed by his brush. 

The collection of Birket Foster's drawings reproduced in this volume is thoroughly 
representative, and is sufficiently extensive to include all phases of his work. The 
accompanying biographical text by Mr. H. M. Cundall will be found to be most 
sympathetic, intimate, and interesting. 





20S. NET. 

There will also be an EDITION DE LUXE, with letterpress printed on 
handmade paper, containing the earliest impressions of the illustrations, 
and limited to 250 signed and numbered copies, price 2 : 2s. net. 

There is plenty of room for another Morland book, especially when written by the 
greatest living authority upon the works of the artist, and where the illustrations are 
reproduced, with most excellent results, from masterpieces loaned from private collections 
hitherto mostly unknown to the artistic public, and of which only a few have either been 
engraved or gravured at all events, .not before reproduced in colour. 

George Morland's work is characterised by its great strength and beauty of colouring. 
To reproduce so many of his choicest pictures, and bring the book into this series, is no easy 
matter, but to ensure success the publishers have spared no efforts to make their reproduc- 
tions worthy of the artist's work and entirely satisfying to the collector and student. 

The collection of pictures reproduced in this volume is thoroughly representative, and 
each illustration is a gem ; they show the several phases of Morland's charming scenes 
of English life in the renowned Academician's time. 

The student and all collectors and admirers of Morland will also rejoice to have the 
appreciative text by Sir Walter Gilbev. 



NE Layard, George Somes 

863 Suppressed plates